What You Should Know about SMAW!

Written by Thomas Yoon

Continued from page 1

Welding Machines

Many types and sizes of welding machines are used for shielded metal-arc welding. The current of a Constant-Current type does not change significantly in variations in arc length. This is preferred for manual welding operations.

The Constant-Potential type of welding machine adjustsrepparttar current according torepparttar 116110 arc length. If used in a manual operation,repparttar 116111 unavoidable variations in arc length will produce large fluctuations inrepparttar 116112 current, resulting in an unstable, non-uniform arc. For automatic operations,repparttar 116113 constant electrode feed rate establishes a stable arc and uniform arc length.

The current rating ofrepparttar 116114 machine is its maximum current output. A current rating of 400 amp meansrepparttar 116115 machine can deliver up to 400 amps of welding current.

The duty cycle rating ofrepparttar 116116 machine isrepparttar 116117 safe operating capacity for non-stop welding. This is expressed as a percentage over a 10-minute period over which a machine can deliver its rated maximum welding current output without damage or overheating. An 80 percent 400-amp machine is one, which can deliver 400 amps of welding current for a total of 8 minutes out of every 10, and must idle at least, 2 minutes out of every 10 for cooling.

Tools and Accessories

The tools for SMAW are: cables, holders, clamps, chipping hammer, wire brush. The protective equipment are face shield, goggles, apron, gloves, shoes, long sleeved shirt. The protective equipment is to avoid eye injuries, and burns. Also there is a need to prevent electric shocks, especially in wet areas.

Selecting an Electrode

Electrodes are classified by their core material: mild steel, high-carbon steel, special alloy steel, cast iron, and non-ferrous. Mild steel electrodes arerepparttar 116118 most commonly used. In general,repparttar 116119 electrode core material is matched as closely as possible withrepparttar 116120 composition ofrepparttar 116121 base metal. Electrode size varies withrepparttar 116122 thickness ofrepparttar 116123 base metal.

The size and characteristics ofrepparttar 116124 selected electrode determinerepparttar 116125 arc current settings onrepparttar 116126 welding machine. Normally,repparttar 116127 range of recommended amperage forrepparttar 116128 electrode is given byrepparttar 116129 manufacturer.

Set up and Operation

Observe fire precautions before starting to weld. No combustible should be nearrepparttar 116130 work area.†

Withrepparttar 116131 electrical power still off; clamprepparttar 116132 earth wire to repparttar 116133 work piece andrepparttar 116134 electrode onrepparttar 116135 holder. Turn onrepparttar 116136 power. To strike an arc, positionrepparttar 116137 end ofrepparttar 116138 electrode about 1 inch aboverepparttar 116139 weld start point. Lower your face shield and with a rapid tapping of scratching motion, touchrepparttar 116140 electrode torepparttar 116141 base ofrepparttar 116142 metal. Immediately afterrepparttar 116143 contact, raiserepparttar 116144 end ofrepparttar 116145 electrode slightly to establish an arc whose length is approximately equal torepparttar 116146 electrode diameter.

If you do not raiserepparttar 116147 electrode fast enough, it will stick torepparttar 116148 work. Twist or bendrepparttar 116149 electrode to break it free. If repparttar 116150 electrode does not break free, quickly release it fromrepparttar 116151 holder. With a little practice, you can learn to strike an arc withoutrepparttar 116152 electrode sticking.

Whenrepparttar 116153 current settings and a proper arc length is maintained, a continuous cracking sound is heard while welding. A humming sound indicates thatrepparttar 116154 arc length is too long or repparttar 116155 current is too high. Arcs too short make a popping sound and may flash on and off, indicatingrepparttar 116156 electrode is sticking and short circuiting torepparttar 116157 base metal.

Make "hard-to-find" Tools "easy-to-find". You can only Produce YOUR BEST with THE BEST!" Earn praises for a job well done, only withrepparttar 116158 PROPER TOOLS! Locate Hard-to-Find Tools for your garage and workshop. Good for Cars, Trucks, Cycles, Boats, and Planes. Quality Tools

Many years of working experience in Marine, Facilities, Construction has given the author material for writing e-books and articles related to engineering, and management. Subscribe to facworld ezine More information at Marine and M & E

Melt & Pour Glycerin Soapcrafting: What You Need to Know

Written by Lisa Maliga

Continued from page 1

Essential oils derive their substance directly from nature. Lemon oil comes fromrepparttar expressed rinds ofrepparttar 116109 fruit, rose essential oil is fromrepparttar 116110 petals of this lovely flower, and sandalwood comes fromrepparttar 116111 wood ofrepparttar 116112 Indian, Indonesian or Australian-grown tree. Essential oils can be reasonably priced at only a few dollars per ounce [citrus scents], to more than $350 for Bulgarian rose otto fromrepparttar 116113 Valley ofrepparttar 116114 Roses or a Ďmereí $197 for some skin healing Immortelle fromrepparttar 116115 island of Corsica. To use such expensive oils in a bar of soap isnít necessary. Pure essential oils are best used in a lotion or cream Ė so they can be absorbed intorepparttar 116116 skin and not washed away.

Donít Add Fresh Fruit or Vegetables Tempting as it may be, refrain from adding that pureed avocado. Donít put in those dewy lavender or rose buds unless you want to see them turn brown before your eyes. A fresh slice of cucumber would look gorgeous suspended in a translucent bar of soap Ė until mold grows over it. Even if you sprinkle in Fruit Fresh or powdered benzoin, even if a book or online article instructs you to do so --- DONíT ADD FRESH FRUIT OR VEGETABLES. You can add dried herbs such as peppermint or rosemary, but expect them to turn brown within a few days or weeks. This is because glycerin soap contains up to 10% water. Water causes pretty dried lavender buds and green leaves to turn that color also.

Test, Test, Test No, you donít have to take a testónot even a quiz! You just have to be sure of what youíre doing inrepparttar 116117 kitchen or soap room. You have to be comfortable making your soap before you sell even a single bar. Donít have your first batch be a complicated multi-color embed project. Start with a simple soap shape and use one color and one scent. You have to be certain thatrepparttar 116118 colors wonít run or fade. Will your fragrances hold up for more than a month? Does your soap sweat? Will that lovely white vanilla or coconut soap remain that color or will it turn chocolate brown in a matter of weeks?

You arerepparttar 116119 first person to test your soaps. Then your family. Let a few friends, neighbors and coworkers in on your soaping hobby that may just turn into quiterepparttar 116120 business. Anticipate questions from testers/potential customers. Knowrepparttar 116121 answers. Do this for at least six months, but a year is even better. Remember, you need to be happy with your products, as youíre nowrepparttar 116122 soapcrafter.

The Business of Soap When you plan to sell your handcrafted glycerin soap creations this entails naming more than each type of soap you make; youíll become a business owner. For more information on this large and important aspect, check outrepparttar 116123 book ďHandmade for Profit!Ē by crafts industry expert Barbara Brabec.

Lisa Maliga is the owner of http://www.everythingshea.com and has been handcrafting glycerin soap since 1998. Her company, Everything Shea Aromatic Creations, offers a fragrant selection of designer shea butter glycerin soaps, exclusive Whipped Shea Butter, & unique SoapCakes to personalize for gifts or promotions. Whipped Shea butter is custom made and preservative free!

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