Wehner's ANIMATE DOS Command

Written by Charles Douglas Wehner

Continued from page 1

There is a ZIP file of about 300 kilobytes, which containsrepparttar 2344 byte program,repparttar 107802 instructions and a floppy-disk label image.

IT IS FREE. http://wehner.org ools/animate

Charles Douglas Wehner

An electronics design engineer and technical suthor, Charles Wehner first became involved with computers as a draughtsman in 1962.

Understanding Computer Memory

Written by Stephen Bucaro

Continued from page 1

The system clock isrepparttar "heart beat" ofrepparttar 107801 system. It is a continuous stream of electric pulses at a very high frequency. If you have a 1.2 GHz computer system, then your system clock pulses come at a rate of 1,200,000,000 per second. Memory can be accessed onrepparttar 107802 rising edge ofrepparttar 107803 system clock. In other words, memory reading and writing is synchronized torepparttar 107804 system clock, hencerepparttar 107805 term "synchronous" DRAM (SDRAM).

SDRAM comes in a 168-pin dual inline memory module (DIMM) package. It comes in two speeds, 100 MHz (PC100) and 133 MHz (PC133). It comes in 3.3 volt and 5.0 volt versions. Some SDRAM contain extra circuitry called "error checking and correction" (ECC) that stores extra bits along withrepparttar 107806 data. The extra bits are used to verifyrepparttar 107807 integrity ofrepparttar 107808 data and correct any errors.

New systems use a type of memory that can access data onrepparttar 107809 rising edge andrepparttar 107810 falling edge ofrepparttar 107811 system clock pulses. This means your computer can accessrepparttar 107812 data in memory at doublerepparttar 107813 rate, hencerepparttar 107814 term "Double Data Rate SDRAM (DDR-SDRAM).

DDR-SDRAM comes packaged in a 168-pin DIMM. It comes in two speeds, 266 MHz (PC2100) and 333 MHz (PC2700). If your motherboard has more than one memory module slot, and you have only one memory module, you might be required to installrepparttar 107815 single DIMM in slot 1.

Some Intel motherboards use Rambus DRAM (RDRAM). RDRAM uses a proprietary communications channel to access memory. RAMBUS is packaged in a 184-pin RAMBUS In-line Memory Module (RIMM). There are two connectors on an Intel Rambus motherboard, each must contain either a RIMM or a C-RIMM. A C-RIMM (continuity RIMM) does not contain memory. It is a module that provides a path pass-through forrepparttar 107816 signals.

If you have an older computer, its main memory may use "fast page memory" (FPM) or "extended data output" (EDO) memory. Some of these used a special "parity bit" to validaterepparttar 107817 integrity ofrepparttar 107818 data. These older types of memory came packaged in a 30 pin single inline memory module (SIMM) or a 72 pin SIMM.

If you want to upgrade your computer's memory, make sure you are usingrepparttar 107819 correct type of memory for your motherboard. It's important to studyrepparttar 107820 manual that came with your motherboard to determine exactly what type and speed of memory is required.

---------------------------------------------------------- Resource Box: Copyright(C)2003 Bucaro TecHelp. To learn how to maintain your computer and use it more effectively to design a Web site and make money onrepparttar 107821 Web visit http://bucarotechelp.com To subscribe to Bucaro TecHelp Newsletter Send a blank email to mailto:bucarotechelp-subscribe@topica.com ----------------------------------------------------------


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