Tuhotmosis PharaohsWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
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He also made campaigns into Nubia where he built temples at Amada and Semna and restored Senusret III's old canal in his 50th year of rule so that his armies could easily pass on their return to Egypt. Tuthmosis III built his own temple near Hatshepsut's on a ledge between her temple and that of Mentuhotep. Close by, Tuthmosis built a rock cut sanctuary to goddess Hathor. This monument was accidentally discovered by a Swiss team when a rock fall exposed its opening. Apparently, shrine was in use up to Ramesside period, when it was destroyed by an earthquake. But of many monuments associated with Tuthmosis III, none faired better then temple of Karnak. Wall reliefs near sanctuary record many gifts of gold jewelry, furniture, rich oils and other gifts offered to temple,. mostly from spoils of war, by Tuthmosis III. He was responsible for Sixth and Seventh Pylons at Karnak, as well as considerable reconstruction within central areas of temple. He erected two obelisks at temple, one of which survives at Hippodrom at Istanbul. There is also a great, black granite Victory Stele embellishing his military victories. He also built a new and very unique temple at Karnak that is today referred to as his Festival Hall. The columns are believed to represent poles of king's campaign tent. In rear is a small room with representations of animals and plants bought back from Syria during 25th year of his reign. For obvious reasons, this room is referred to as Botanical Garden. Tuthmosis III, we believe ruled Egypt from 1504 BC until his death in 1450 BC. He was buried in Valley of kings. The tomb was halfway up a cliff face, and after his burial, masons destroyed stone stairway leading up to it and concealed tomb's entrance. However, it would seem that no matter what initiatives pharaohs took to protect their tombs, robbers were sure to find them. Indeed, in 1898 when his tomb was discovered by Victor Loret, all he found was carved sarcophagus and some remains of smashed furniture and wooden statues. Tuthmosis III, mummy likewise was not in tomb, for it had been found in 1881 in great royal cache at Deir el-Bahari. However, tomb is covered with black and red painted hieratic renditions of netherworld texts. The Pharaoh Tuthmosis IV, who ruled during Egypt famous 18th Dynasty, is probably most famous for his "Dream Stele, that can still today be found between paws of great Sphinx at Giza. Dreams were important in ancient Egypt and were considered to be divine predictions of future. In Tuthmosis IV's "Dream Stele", he tells us that, while out on a hunting trip, he fell asleep in shadow of Sphinx (or apparently, shadow of Sphinx's head, for monument was apparently buried in sand at time). In young prince's sleep, Re-Harakhte, sun god embodied in Sphinx, came to him in a dream and promised that if he would clear away sand that engulfed monument, Tuthmosis would become king of Egypt.
Egyptian medical doctor, speciality in radiology,much interested in egyptology.
King NarmerWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
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Narmer may have considered Buto as central capital of Delta he had just conquered. On his palette is a hieroglyphic group that could be read as Ta Mehu, later name for Delta region. Since Narmer is shown with Red Crown he was thus first to ascribe this Crown to entire Delta and thus Lower Egypt. He may have transferred Red Crown from Nubt/Naqada to represent entirety of Lower Egypt. The Narmer macehead, also discovered at Hierakonpolis, has had three interpretations. Petrie's theory, also held by later scholars, was that mace head depicted political marriage of Nithotep, princess of north, with Narmer. Other scholars feel macehead depicts a celebration by Narmer of his conquest of north, while still others regard macehead as commemorating a Sed-festival of king. Nithotep's grave has been found at Naqada, with Narmer's name as well as with King Aha's name. Nithotep thus is linked with two kings as wife and mother. Most recently, new studies of images on macehead put forth theory that scenes are not primarily commemorative but are simply pictorial versions of year-names. The focus of scene is king's figure, seen sitting robed in a long cloak enthroned under a canopy on a high dais, wearing Red Crown and holding a flail. The enclosure within which he sits can be interpreted as a shrine or temple. He is attended by minor figures of fan-bearers, bodyguards, with long quarterslaves and an official who may be either vizier or heir-apparent. In front of Narmer three men run a race towards him, while above them stands four men carrying standards. Facing king is a cloaked and beardless figure, over whom is a simple enclosure in which stands a cow and calf .
The running figures may represent Muu dancers, long associated with Buto, presenting a welcome to new lord of Delta. The seated figure facing Narmer may be chief of Buto rather than a princess of Delta. Beneath these figures are symbols of numbers. The numbers have been recently interpreted to indicate 400,000 cattle, 1,422,000 small animals, and 120,000 men (not women and children, only males.) This would have provided for a total human population of Delta of perhaps 600,000. The macehead then commemorates completion of conquest of Lower Egypt, not with a royal dynastic marriage etc, but perhaps, with first Appearance of King of Lower Egypt, by an actual census of Delta people, similar to and a precursor of census taken by William Conqueror after he won England. Some scholars speculate that Menes and Narmer may be same person. Menes is Greek form of name of legendary first human king of Egypt as given by Manetho, historian living in Hellenistic times who constructed one form of King Lists. Hor-Aha, first king of First Dynasty and thus Narmer's probable successor and possibly his son by Queen Nithotep, perhaps took second royal name of Men, which means "established", thus being origin of name Menes. Evidence indicating all this is an ivory label from tomb of Queen Nithotep at Naqada. It shows name Hor-Aha, and name Men, in front of it.
Egyptian radiologist,interested in egyptology.