Tuhotmosis Pharaohs

Written by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga

Continued from page 1

He also made campaigns into Nubia where he built temples at Amada and Semna and restored Senusret III's old canal in his 50th year of rule so that his armies could easily pass on their return to Egypt. Tuthmosis III built his own temple near Hatshepsut's on a ledge between her temple and that of Mentuhotep. Close by, Tuthmosis built a rock cut sanctuary torepparttar goddess Hathor. This monument was accidentally discovered by a Swiss team when a rock fall exposed its opening. Apparently,repparttar 109434 shrine was in use up torepparttar 109435 Ramesside period, when it was destroyed by an earthquake. But ofrepparttar 109436 many monuments associated with Tuthmosis III, none faired better thenrepparttar 109437 temple of Karnak. Wall reliefs nearrepparttar 109438 sanctuary recordrepparttar 109439 many gifts of gold jewelry, furniture, rich oils and other gifts offered torepparttar 109440 temple,. mostly fromrepparttar 109441 spoils of war, by Tuthmosis III. He was responsible forrepparttar 109442 Sixth and Seventh Pylons at Karnak, as well as considerable reconstruction withinrepparttar 109443 central areas ofrepparttar 109444 temple. He erected two obelisks atrepparttar 109445 temple, one of which survives atrepparttar 109446 Hippodrom at Istanbul. There is also a great, black granite Victory Stele embellishing his military victories. He also built a new and very unique temple at Karnak that is today referred to as his Festival Hall. The columns are believed to representrepparttar 109447 poles ofrepparttar 109448 king's campaign tent. Inrepparttar 109449 rear is a small room with representations of animals and plants bought back from Syria duringrepparttar 109450 25th year of his reign. For obvious reasons, this room is referred to asrepparttar 109451 Botanical Garden. Tuthmosis III, we believe ruled Egypt from 1504 BC until his death in 1450 BC. He was buried inrepparttar 109452 Valley ofrepparttar 109453 kings. The tomb was halfway up a cliff face, and after his burial, masons destroyedrepparttar 109454 stone stairway leading up to it and concealedrepparttar 109455 tomb's entrance. However, it would seem that no matter what initiatives pharaohs took to protect their tombs, robbers were sure to find them. Indeed, in 1898 when his tomb was discovered by Victor Loret, all he found wasrepparttar 109456 carved sarcophagus and some remains of smashed furniture and wooden statues. Tuthmosis III, mummy likewise was not inrepparttar 109457 tomb, for it had been found in 1881 inrepparttar 109458 great royal cache at Deir el-Bahari. However,repparttar 109459 tomb is covered with black and red painted hieratic renditions ofrepparttar 109460 netherworld texts. The Pharaoh Tuthmosis IV, who ruled during Egypt famous 18th Dynasty, is probably most famous for his "Dream Stele, that can still today be found betweenrepparttar 109461 paws ofrepparttar 109462 great Sphinx at Giza. Dreams were important in ancient Egypt and were considered to be divine predictions ofrepparttar 109463 future. In Tuthmosis IV's "Dream Stele", he tells us that, while out on a hunting trip, he fell asleep inrepparttar 109464 shadow ofrepparttar 109465 Sphinx (or apparently,repparttar 109466 shadow ofrepparttar 109467 Sphinx's head, forrepparttar 109468 monument was apparently buried in sand atrepparttar 109469 time). Inrepparttar 109470 young prince's sleep, Re-Harakhte,repparttar 109471 sun god embodied inrepparttar 109472 Sphinx, came to him in a dream and promised that if he would clear awayrepparttar 109473 sand that engulfedrepparttar 109474 monument, Tuthmosis would become king of Egypt.

Egyptian medical doctor, speciality in radiology,much interested in egyptology.

King Narmer

Written by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga

Continued from page 1
Narmer may have considered Buto asrepparttar central capital ofrepparttar 109433 Delta he had just conquered. On his palette is a hieroglyphic group that could be read as Ta Mehu,repparttar 109434 later name forrepparttar 109435 Delta region. Since Narmer is shown withrepparttar 109436 Red Crown he was thusrepparttar 109437 first to ascribe this Crown torepparttar 109438 entire Delta and thus Lower Egypt. He may have transferredrepparttar 109439 Red Crown from Nubt/Naqada to representrepparttar 109440 entirety of Lower Egypt. The Narmer macehead, also discovered at Hierakonpolis, has had three interpretations. Petrie's theory, also held by later scholars, was thatrepparttar 109441 mace head depictedrepparttar 109442 political marriage of Nithotep, princess ofrepparttar 109443 north, with Narmer. Other scholars feelrepparttar 109444 macehead depicts a celebration by Narmer of his conquest ofrepparttar 109445 north, while still others regardrepparttar 109446 macehead as commemorating a Sed-festival ofrepparttar 109447 king. Nithotep's grave has been found at Naqada, with Narmer's name as well as with King Aha's name. Nithotep thus is linked with two kings as wife and mother. Most recently, new studies ofrepparttar 109448 images onrepparttar 109449 macehead put forthrepparttar 109450 theory thatrepparttar 109451 scenes are not primarily commemorative but are simply pictorial versions of year-names. The focus ofrepparttar 109452 scene isrepparttar 109453 king's figure, seen sitting robed in a long cloak enthroned under a canopy on a high dais, wearingrepparttar 109454 Red Crown and holding a flail. The enclosure within which he sits can be interpreted as a shrine or temple. He is attended by minor figures of fan-bearers, bodyguards, with long quarterslaves and an official who may be either vizier or heir-apparent. In front of Narmer three men run a race towards him, while above them stands four men carrying standards. Facingrepparttar 109455 king is a cloaked and beardless figure, over whom is a simple enclosure in which stands a cow and calf .

The running figures may represent Muu dancers, long associated with Buto, presenting a welcome torepparttar 109456 new lord ofrepparttar 109457 Delta. The seated figure facing Narmer may berepparttar 109458 chief of Buto rather than a princess ofrepparttar 109459 Delta. Beneath these figures are symbols of numbers. The numbers have been recently interpreted to indicate 400,000 cattle, 1,422,000 small animals, and 120,000 men (not women and children, only males.) This would have provided for a total human population ofrepparttar 109460 Delta of perhaps 600,000. The macehead then commemoratesrepparttar 109461 completion ofrepparttar 109462 conquest of Lower Egypt, not with a royal dynastic marriage etc, but perhaps, withrepparttar 109463 first Appearance ofrepparttar 109464 King of Lower Egypt, by an actual census ofrepparttar 109465 Delta people, similar to and a precursor ofrepparttar 109466 census taken by Williamrepparttar 109467 Conqueror after he won England. Some scholars speculate that Menes and Narmer may berepparttar 109468 same person. Menes isrepparttar 109469 Greek form ofrepparttar 109470 name ofrepparttar 109471 legendary first human king of Egypt as given by Manetho,repparttar 109472 historian living in Hellenistic times who constructed one form of King Lists. Hor-Aha,repparttar 109473 first king ofrepparttar 109474 First Dynasty and thus Narmer's probable successor and possibly his son by Queen Nithotep, perhaps tookrepparttar 109475 second royal name of Men, which means "established", thus beingrepparttar 109476 origin ofrepparttar 109477 name Menes. Evidence indicating all this is an ivory label fromrepparttar 109478 tomb of Queen Nithotep at Naqada. It showsrepparttar 109479 name Hor-Aha, andrepparttar 109480 name Men, in front of it.

Egyptian radiologist,interested in egyptology.

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