Traumas as Social Interactions

Written by Sam Vaknin

Continued from page 1

In other words, society, by itself being in a state of rage, positively enforcesrepparttar narcissistic rage reactions ofrepparttar 126211 grieving victim. This, inrepparttar 126212 long run, is counter-productive, inhibits personal growth, and prevents healing. It also erodesrepparttar 126213 reality test ofrepparttar 126214 victim and encourages self-delusions, paranoidal ideation, and ideas of reference.


Victim Phase IV - DEPRESSION

Asrepparttar 126215 consequences of narcissistic rage - both social and personal - grow more unacceptable, depression sets in. The victim internalizes his aggressive impulses. Self directed rage is safer but isrepparttar 126216 cause of great sadness and even suicidal ideation. The victim's depression is a way of conforming to social norms. It is also instrumental in riddingrepparttar 126217 victim ofrepparttar 126218 unhealthy residues of narcissistic regression. It is whenrepparttar 126219 victim acknowledgesrepparttar 126220 malignancy of his rage (and its anti-social nature) that he adopts a depressive stance.


People aroundrepparttar 126221 victim ("society") also emerge from their phase of rage transformed. As they realizerepparttar 126222 futility of their rage, they feel more and more helpless and devoid of options. They grasp their limitations andrepparttar 126223 irrelevance of their good intentions. They acceptrepparttar 126224 inevitability of loss and evil and Kafkaesquely agree to live under an ominous cloud of arbitrary judgement, meted out by impersonal powers.

Summary Phase IV

Again,repparttar 126225 members of society are unable to helprepparttar 126226 victim to emerge from a self-destructive phase. His depression is enhanced by their apparent helplessness. Their introversion and inefficacy induce inrepparttar 126227 victim a feeling of nightmarish isolation and alienation. Healing and growth are once again retarded or even inhibited.



Depression - if pathologically protracted and in conjunction with other mental health problems - sometimes leads to suicide. But more often, it allowsrepparttar 126228 victim to process mentally hurtful and potentially harmful material and pavesrepparttar 126229 way to acceptance. Depression is a laboratory ofrepparttar 126230 psyche. Withdrawal from social pressures enablesrepparttar 126231 direct transformation of anger into other emotions, some of them otherwise socially unacceptable. The honest encounter betweenrepparttar 126232 victim and his own (possible) death often becomes a cathartic and self-empowering inner dynamic. The victim emerges ready to move on.

Society Phase V - DENIAL

Society, onrepparttar 126233 other hand, having exhausted its reactive arsenal - resorts to denial. As memories fade and asrepparttar 126234 victim recovers and abandons his obsessive-compulsive dwelling on his pain - society feels morally justified to forget and forgive. This mood of historical revisionism, of moral leniency, of effusive forgiveness, of re-interpretation, and of a refusal to remember in detail - leads to a repression and denial ofrepparttar 126235 painful events by society.

Summary Phase V

This final mismatch betweenrepparttar 126236 victim's emotional needs and society's reactions is less damaging torepparttar 126237 victim. He is now more resilient, stronger, more flexible, and more willing to forgive and forget. Society's denial is really a denial ofrepparttar 126238 victim. But, having ridden himself of more primitive narcissistic defences -repparttar 126239 victim can do without society's acceptance, approval, or look. Having enduredrepparttar 126240 purgatory of grieving, he has now re-acquired his self, independent of society's acknowledgement.

Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at

Intuition - Part II

Written by Sam Vaknin

Continued from page 1

IIC. Kant

According to Kant, our senses acquaint us withrepparttar particulars of things and thus provide us with intuitions. The faculty of understanding provided us with useful taxonomies of particulars ("concepts"). Yet, concepts without intuitions were as empty and futile as intuitions without concepts. Perceptions ("phenomena") arerepparttar 126210 composite ofrepparttar 126211 sensations caused byrepparttar 126212 perceived objects andrepparttar 126213 mind's reactions to such sensations ("form"). These reactions arerepparttar 126214 product of intuition.

IID. The Absolute Idealists

Schelling suggested a featureless, undifferentiated, union of opposites asrepparttar 126215 Absolute Ideal. Intellectual intuition entails such a union of opposites (subject and object) and, thus, is immersed and assimilated byrepparttar 126216 Absolute and becomes as featureless and undifferentiated asrepparttar 126217 Absolute is.

Objective Idealists claimed that we can know ultimate (spiritual) reality by intuition (or thought) independent ofrepparttar 126218 senses (the mystical argument). The mediation of words and symbol systems only distortsrepparttar 126219 "signal" and inhibitsrepparttar 126220 effective application of one's intuition torepparttar 126221 attainment of real, immutable, knowledge.

IIE. The Phenomenologists

The Phenomenological point of view is that every thing has an invariable and irreducible "essence" ("Eidos", as distinguished from contingent information aboutrepparttar 126222 thing). We can grasp this essence only intuitively ("Eidetic Reduction"). This process - of transcendingrepparttar 126223 concrete and reaching forrepparttar 126224 essential - is independent of facts, concrete objects, or mental constructs. But it is not free from methodology ("free variation"), from factual knowledge, or from ideal intuitions. The Phenomenologist is forced to makerepparttar 126225 knowledge of facts his point of departure. He then applies a certain methodology (he variesrepparttar 126226 nature and specifications ofrepparttar 126227 studied object to reveal its essence) which relies entirely on ideal intuitions (such asrepparttar 126228 rules of logic).

Phenomenology, in other words, is an Idealistic form of Rationalism. It applies reason to discover Platonic (Idealism) essences. Like Rationalism, it is not empirical (it is not based on sense data). Actually, it is anti-empirical - it "brackets"repparttar 126229 concrete andrepparttar 126230 factual in its attempt to delve beyond appearances and into essences. It calls forrepparttar 126231 application of intuition (Anschauung) to discover essential insights (Wesenseinsichten).

"Phenomenon" in Phenomenology is that which is known by consciousness and in it. Phenomenologists regarded intuition as a "pure", direct, and primitive way of reducing clutter in reality. It is immediate andrepparttar 126232 basis of a higher level perception. A philosophical system built on intuition would, perforce, be non speculative. Hence, Phenomenology's emphasis onrepparttar 126233 study of consciousness (and intuition) rather than onrepparttar 126234 study of (deceiving) reality. It is through "Wesensschau" (the intuition of essences) that one reachesrepparttar 126235 invariant nature of things (by applying free variation techniques).

Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at

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