Toilets in Modern Art

Written by Angelique van Engelen

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The work was inspired byrepparttar collapse ofrepparttar 135912 Soviet Union, which torepparttar 135913 artists minds demanded an embracing ofrepparttar 135914 genre ‘total installation’. This isrepparttar 135915 first work in which Ilya Kabakov encompassed an entire range of personal memories and reproduced them. His toilet shows shabby walls of white lime, covered by obscene graffiti in which toilets without any doors are placed. They epitomizerepparttar 135916 Russian idea of civilisation even more because they were communal, just like ordinary people's residences. People believe that in exile, Ilya Kabakov's work has become more unified and total. Kabakov and his wife created more than 200 installations in a number of different countries. They are concept artists closely associated withrepparttar 135917 Russian NOMA group and steer clear of producing pop art, a strong contemporary art movement in Russia. Kabakov does not want his work to look as if it could be included in an advertisement. He has chosen to focus onrepparttar 135918 ordinary everyday life in an old fashioned effort to chronicle its bleakness. “Too banal and insignificant to be recorded anywhere else, and made taboo not because of their potential political explosiveness, but because of their sheer ordinariness, their all-too-human scale”, as one writer puts it. The Toilet inrepparttar 135919 Corner is now on permanent display inrepparttar 135920 State Hermitage. One Belgian, Jan de Pooter, also more or less a contemporary concept artist, is also driven byrepparttar 135921 urge to document. He has made an inventory ofrepparttar 135922 collapsing public urinals of his home town Antwerp. He also made a portable urinal and christened it "pisse-partout". It is a portable device that allows one to have a pee at any place in complete serenity... In creating his ‘urinal art’, De Pooter isn’trepparttar 135923 first to draw public attention torepparttar 135924 public conveniences inrepparttar 135925 city. They even derive their official name "Vespassiennes" fromrepparttar 135926 Roman emperor Vespacianus who lived in 68 AD. On this ruler’s list levying taxes on public toilets throughout his empire came after buildingrepparttar 135927 Colloseum, ending Nero's misgovernment and persecutingrepparttar 135928 Jews. When he got complaints about it he usedrepparttar 135929 famous words: (pecunia) non olet! Money does not smell. Which was rather a civilized thing forrepparttar 135930 time.

Angelique van Engelen is a freelance writer living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. She writes for and also contributes to a blog writing ring

The Fabulous Fifties

Written by Vicki Clark

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There was a change happening in music. A sound that had its roots in black music and was referred to as "race music" was becoming popular with white teens. Early in 1951 disc jockey, Alan Freed, realized that white teenagers with money to spend were buying records of what had been considered exclusively Negro music a year earlier. Byrepparttar summer of that same yearrepparttar 135745 "Moondog Show" premiered from Cleavland. Disc jockey, Alan Freed, was "The Moondog" and played this new music with a "beat". His shows were a phenomenal hit and Alan Freed is credited for namingrepparttar 135746 new music, "Rock 'n Roll" Sam Phillips, a Memphis recording man and enthusiast of black music immediately recognized a special quality in Elvis Presley, who had been influenced by Southern black gospel and blues. On July 5, 1954 at Sun Records Elvis recorded "I'm All Right, Mama" with "Blue Moon of Kentucky" onrepparttar 135747 flip side. Soon after, he was named "Most Up and Coming Hillbilly Artist of The Year". By February of 1955 Bill Haley's version of "Shake Rattle and Roll" had sold 1 million copies, Chuck Berry's "Maybellene" was onrepparttar 135748 charts and then came Little Richard with, "Tutti Frutti". Rock'n Roll was born, and here to stay. Even as parents disapproved of it as "devil music"repparttar 135749 kids couldn't get enough. The automobile became an American icon duringrepparttar 135750 prosperity ofrepparttar 135751 50s. The Ford Thunderbird, Chevrolet sedans and Chrysler station-wagons became symbols ofrepparttar 135752 new affluent American society. The nation was suddenly mobile and "Drive-in" became a part ofrepparttar 135753 language and culture. Public Works beganrepparttar 135754 construction of an extensive highway system like no other time in history and road trips in big-finned cars became a national past-time. The Cold War betweenrepparttar 135755 world's Super Powers, America and Russia, cast a shadow of fear overrepparttar 135756 Frivolous Fifties. The Atomic and Hydrogen bombs were created andrepparttar 135757 military performed 200 above-ground nuclear tests between 1954 and 1958. There was failure after failure inrepparttar 135758 rocket launching competition betweenrepparttar 135759 two countries until Russia realized success with it's Sputnik on October 4, 1957. Americans found themselves watchingrepparttar 135760 skies and learning to "duck and cover". Byrepparttar 135761 latter part ofrepparttar 135762 decade Marilyn Monroe had appeared asrepparttar 135763 first centerfold in Hugh Hefner's Playboy magazine and Ed Sullivan had backed down by inviting Elvis to perform, two months after calling him vulgar and exclaiming that he would never appear on his television show. The youth had their own music andrepparttar 135764 Beats, with their hip new language, becamerepparttar 135765 forefathers ofrepparttar 135766 60s counter-culture. Profound economic, political, racial and social changes had taken place in a short time. Happy Days? Yes, but complex and evolving too.

Vicki writes original content for her retro website, The Nostalgic Boomer. She is a baby boomer who lives and works as a Legal Assistant in a County Attorney's Office in Arizona and spends her spare time writing poetry, fiction, articles for web content and creating web design.

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