The many uses of the Functional Wetland.

Written by Kevin Doberstein

Continued from page 1

Some ofrepparttar concerns ofrepparttar 146234 City Council about this type of development were children andrepparttar 146235 swales, mosquitoes, flooding in basements, sidewalk construction and off-street parking.

Torepparttar 146236 environmentalist, it is a start of water, soil and wildlife conservation. Torepparttar 146237 city dweller, it takes them out of a bug free concrete habitat into unfamiliar natural ecosystem. And torepparttar 146238 developer it is a double edge sword. One side is that they can’t fill inrepparttar 146239 wetlands to sell more lots. But then onrepparttar 146240 other side they reduce development costs by using natural sources instead of expensive concrete stormwater control applications.

The EPA estimates urban storm sewer discharge contributes to 13 percent of impaired rivers, 18 percent of impaired lakes, 55 percent of impaired ocean shorelines and 32 percent of impaired estuaries. With this back to natural water filtration outlookrepparttar 146241 deteriorating water supply could gradually be turned around.

Sources: City of Medford Committee ofrepparttar 146242 Whole Meeting Minutes 5/31/05 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources web site. EPA National Water Quality Inventory: 2000 Report

Aboutrepparttar 146243 Author: Kevin Doberstein enjoys wildlife and nature while hiking inrepparttar 146244 Wisconsin great outdoors. He is alsorepparttar 146245 owner of Nature Boy Natural Images. This web site displays outdoor wildlife and nature photography. He also hasrepparttar 146246 Wisconsin Outdoor Recreation Blog. The Wisconsin Outdoor Recreation and Wildlife Blog is for promoting and protecting nature and wildlife resources inrepparttar 146247 state of Wisconsin.

Kevin Doberstein enjoys wildlife and nature while hiking in the Wisconsin great outdoors. He is also the owner of Nature Boy Natural Images. This web site displays outdoor wildlife and nature photography. The Wisconsin Outdoor Recreation and Wildlife Blog is for promoting and protecting nature and wildlife resources in the state of Wisconsin.

The Dead Sea - A Sea that is Sadly "Living" up to its Name

Written by Haitham Sabbah

Continued from page 1

Scenario I Business as Usual

The Middle East in 2025 is reminiscent ofrepparttar present day situation. This is because after 20 years, very little has changed. The levels of cooperation between Israelis andrepparttar 144206 Palestinians remains low, plagued by cycles of violence followed by periods of quiet but not real peace. The lack of progress between Israel andrepparttar 144207 Palestinians affectsrepparttar 144208 levels of cooperation between Jordanians and Israelis as well. Jordan’s relationship with Israel remains low key and secretive, while Jordan’s relationship withrepparttar 144209 Palestinians is cold and distrustful. The lack of cooperation creates short-term thinking on all sides. Israel, Jordan, andrepparttar 144210 Palestinians compete for water resources, through over pumping and ill-conceived water projects. Agriculture continues to be protected and receive water at below market prices compounding water stress inrepparttar 144211 region. The economies inrepparttar 144212 area remain sluggish, thoughrepparttar 144213 world economy is bouncing back after years of slow growth. The level ofrepparttar 144214 Dead Sea is back onrepparttar 144215 rise, however,repparttar 144216 environmental consequences ofrepparttar 144217 ”Red-Dead Conduit” have yet to be fully digested. The gypsum precipitation caused byrepparttar 144218 mixing of sulfate rich Red Sea water withrepparttar 144219 calcium rich Dead Sea water has whitenedrepparttar 144220 surface ofrepparttar 144221 Dead Sea and is having an impact onrepparttar 144222 climate inrepparttar 144223 basin. The Sea of Galilee continues to be endangered by over pumping andrepparttar 144224 Jordan River is nothing more than an open sewage canal.

Scenario II A Water Stressed Out Middle East

While a Water Stressed Out Middle East may look similar to Scenario I, this scenario describes a Middle East inrepparttar 144225 year 2025 that is ready to explode. Cooperation remains low as inrepparttar 144226 previous scenario, andrepparttar 144227 role of agriculture remains central, however, withoutrepparttar 144228 large addition of desalinated water fromrepparttar 144229 ”Red-Dead Conduit”, water stress inrepparttar 144230 region is reaching unsustainable levels. Something has to give way. Israel, Jordan, and Palestine seem to be heading for an outright conflict over water inrepparttar 144231 region. The countries must either increaserepparttar 144232 level of cooperation allowing for a more efficient and equitable use ofrepparttar 144233 water resources or vastly reducerepparttar 144234 role of agriculture inrepparttar 144235 region in order to avoidrepparttar 144236 oncoming conflict. The level ofrepparttar 144237 Dead Sea is at an all time low, and still sinking. Large ecological systems aroundrepparttar 144238 shores ofrepparttar 144239 Dead Sea have been destroyed. The continued violence inrepparttar 144240 Middle East, combined with sinkholes and a quickly receding shoreline, has decimated tourism inrepparttar 144241 area. A lack of water for irrigation has turnedrepparttar 144242 farming villages onrepparttar 144243 Israeli and Jordanian shores ofrepparttar 144244 Dead Sea into ghost towns. Jericho,repparttar 144245 oldest city inrepparttar 144246 world, hasrepparttar 144247 lowest per capita water consumption inrepparttar 144248 inrepparttar 144249 world.

Scenario III A Low Impact Middle East

A Low Impact Middle East would require a break from present trends. In order to reach sustainability byrepparttar 144250 year 2025,repparttar 144251 leadership inrepparttar 144252 Middle East, as well asrepparttar 144253 United States, found a way to breakrepparttar 144254 cycle of violence, which had plaguedrepparttar 144255 area forrepparttar 144256 last 100 years. New levels of cooperation enabledrepparttar 144257 countries inrepparttar 144258 region to work together to find solutions to water stress and environmental problems. The countries looked for low impact solutions in order to create new water supplies while atrepparttar 144259 same time recognizingrepparttar 144260 need to limit agriculture to a more sustainable dimension. Low impact water systems such as rainwater harvesting, wastewater recycling, and efficient water delivery systems created new water without major adverse environmental effects. It was necessary to build a large number of desalination plants in order to provide water torepparttar 144261 growing population. However,repparttar 144262 decreased size of irrigated agriculture, climate appropriate crops, andrepparttar 144263 improvement of irrigation systems inrepparttar 144264 region meant that treated wastewater could serve asrepparttar 144265 major source for water for farming. The level ofrepparttar 144266 Dead Sea is slowly rising. The decrease inrepparttar 144267 use of fresh water fromrepparttar 144268 Sea of Galilee for Israel and Jordan has allowedrepparttar 144269 Jordan River to once again flow with clean water intorepparttar 144270 Dead Sea. Ecological systems that had been suffering for years inrepparttar 144271 Sea of Galilee,repparttar 144272 Jordan River, andrepparttar 144273 Dead Sea are slowly recovering. Tourism inrepparttar 144274 area is flourishing, providing a boost torepparttar 144275 economies of all three nations. Ten years ago, inrepparttar 144276 year 2015,repparttar 144277 leadership in Israel, Palestine, andrepparttar 144278 United States brokered a Geneva-like peace agreement entailing a total Israeli withdrawal torepparttar 144279 recognized borders alongrepparttar 144280 ”Green Line” (’67 Armistice Line) except for certain areas for whichrepparttar 144281 Palestinians received one to one land compensation. Israeli settlements inrepparttar 144282 West Bank were evacuated and handed over intact torepparttar 144283 new Palestinian state as a goodwill gesture from Israel. A number of Palestinian refugees returned torepparttar 144284 state of Palestine. Jerusalem is a divided city withrepparttar 144285 Old City of Jerusalem under joint Palestinian/Israeli sovereignty. Atrepparttar 144286 White House agreement signing ceremony,repparttar 144287 United States President expressed satisfaction at being able to completerepparttar 144288 work of previous administrations inrepparttar 144289 long struggle for a peaceful settlement inrepparttar 144290 Middle East.

Scenario IV A Supply Managed Middle East

Byrepparttar 144291 year 2025,repparttar 144292 riparian nations aroundrepparttar 144293 Dead Sea have begun to feelrepparttar 144294 fruits ofrepparttar 144295 peace agreement reached 10 years earlier. Israel, Palestine, and Jordan are all three experiencing better than average growth rates. With strong economies, stable political environments, a warm climate, and a proximity to Europe,repparttar 144296 area has become attractive to international investors. Tourism and agriculture arerepparttar 144297 two main destinations of international capital. The Dead Sea Basin has become a focus for building large hotels and resorts aimed atrepparttar 144298 European market while all three nations are supplying more and more fresh fruits and vegetables to European markets. Water isrepparttar 144299 key to continued economic progress inrepparttar 144300 region and so, large water projects are a priority for both government and private investment. The “Peace” Conduit (Red-Dead Conduit) is providing 800 MCM of water annually torepparttar 144301 area but withrepparttar 144302 rapid development ofrepparttar 144303 region,repparttar 144304 need for water continues to grow. Israel and Palestine are working together to increase their water supplies through large desalination projects of seawater and brackish water, dams in every available Wadi and wastewater recycling. Rapid economic growth, large water projects, andrepparttar 144305 development of large tracts of land for agriculture are changingrepparttar 144306 face ofrepparttar 144307 region. Pristine deserts, nature reserves, mountain Wadis, andrepparttar 144308 Dead Sea itself are being transformed beyond recognition. Whilerepparttar 144309 benefits of peace and development are clear, many are disturbed byrepparttar 144310 loss of much ofrepparttar 144311 natural beauty and ecological systems. [Source]

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