The Stalker as Antisocial Bully

Written by Sam Vaknin


Continued from page 1

Their (primitive) defence mechanisms include splitting (they viewrepparttar world and people in it as "all good" or "all evil"), projection (attribute their own shortcomings unto others) and Projective Identification (force others to behaverepparttar 126111 way they expect them to).

The psychopath fails to comply with social norms. Hencerepparttar 126112 criminal acts,repparttar 126113 deceitfulness and identity theft,repparttar 126114 use of aliases,repparttar 126115 constant lying, andrepparttar 126116 conning of even his nearest and dearest for gain or pleasure. Psychopaths are unreliable and do not honour their undertakings, obligations, contracts, and responsibilities. They rarely hold a job for long or repay their debts. They are vindictive, remorseless, ruthless, driven, dangerous, aggressive, violent, irritable, and, sometimes, prone to magical thinking. They seldom plan forrepparttar 126117 long and medium terms, believing themselves to be immune torepparttar 126118 consequences of their own actions.

(Adapted from my Mental Health Dictionary)

III. The Stalker as a Bully

Bullies feel inadequate and compensates for it by being violent verbally, psychologically, or physically. Some bullies suffer from personality and other mental health disorders. They feel entitled to special treatment, seek attention, lack empathy, are rageful and envious, and exploit and then discard their co-workers.

Bullies are insincere, haughty, unreliable, and lack empathy and sensitivity torepparttar 126119 emotions, needs, and preferences of others whom they regard and treat as objects or instruments of gratification.

Bullies are ruthless, cold, and have alloplastic defences (and outside locus of control) they blame others for their failures, defeats, or misfortunes. Bullies have low frustration and tolerance thresholds, get bored and anxious easily, are violently impatient, emotionally labile, unstable, erratic, and untrustworthy. They lack self-discipline, are egotistic, exploitative, rapacious, opportunistic, driven, reckless, and callous.

Bullies are emotionally immature and control freaks. They are consummate liars and deceivingly charming. Bullies dress, talk, and behave normally. Many of them are persuasive, manipulative, or even charismatic. They are socially adept, liked, and often fun to be around andrepparttar 126120 centre of attention. Only a prolonged and intensive interaction with them sometimes as a victim exposes their dysfunctions.

(Based on an entry I have written forrepparttar 126121 Open Site Encyclopaedia Workplace Bullying)



Sam Vaknin ( http://samvak.tripod.com ) is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He served as a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , and Bellaonline, and as a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent. He is the the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory and Suite101.


Misdiagnosing Narcissism - The Bipolar I Disorder

Written by Sam Vaknin


Continued from page 1

The bipolar's swollen self-esteem, overstated self-confidence, obvious grandiosity, and delusional fantasies are akin torepparttar narcissist's and arerepparttar 126110 source ofrepparttar 126111 diagnostic confusion. Both types of patients purport to give advice, carry out an assignment, accomplish a mission, or embark on an enterprise for which they are uniquely unqualified and lackrepparttar 126112 talents, skills, knowledge, or experience required.

Butrepparttar 126113 bipolar's bombast is far more delusional thanrepparttar 126114 narcissist's. Ideas of reference and magical thinking are common and, in this sense,repparttar 126115 bipolar is closer torepparttar 126116 schizotypal than torepparttar 126117 narcissistic.

There are other differentiating symptoms:

Sleep disorders - notably acute insomnia - are common inrepparttar 126118 manic phase of bipolar and uncommon in narcissism. So is "manic speech" - pressured, uninterruptible, loud, rapid, dramatic (includes singing and humorous asides), sometimes incomprehensible, incoherent, chaotic, and lasts for hours. It reflectsrepparttar 126119 bipolar's inner turmoil and his/her inability to control his/her racing and kaleidoscopic thoughts.

As opposed to narcissists, bipolar inrepparttar 126120 manic phase are often distracted byrepparttar 126121 slightest stimuli, are unable to focus on relevant data, or to maintainrepparttar 126122 thread of conversation. They are "all overrepparttar 126123 place" - simultaneously initiating numerous business ventures, joining a myriad organization, writing umpteen letters, contacting hundreds of friends and perfect strangers, acting in a domineering, demanding, and intrusive manner, totally disregardingrepparttar 126124 needs and emotions ofrepparttar 126125 unfortunate recipients of their unwanted attentions. They rarely follow up on their projects.

The transformation is so marked thatrepparttar 126126 bipolar is often described by his/her closest as "not himself/herself". Indeed, some bipolars relocate, change name and appearance, and lose contact with their "former life". Antisocial or even criminal behavior is not uncommon and aggression is marked, directed at both others (assault) and oneself (suicide). Some biploars describe an acuteness ofrepparttar 126127 senses, akin to experiences recounted by drug users: smells, sounds, and sights are accentuated and attain an unearthly quality.

As opposed to narcissists, bipolars regret their misdeeds followingrepparttar 126128 manic phase and try to atone for their actions. They realize and accept that "something is wrong with them" and seek help. Duringrepparttar 126129 depressive phase they are ego-dystonic and their defenses are autoplastic (they blame themselves for their defeats, failures, and mishaps).

Finally, pathological narcissism is already discernible in early adolescence. The full-fledged bipolar disorder - including a manic phase - rarely occurs beforerepparttar 126130 age of 20. The narcissist is consistent in his pathology - not sorepparttar 126131 bipolar. The onset ofrepparttar 126132 manic episode is fast and furious and results in a conspicuous metamorphosis ofrepparttar 126133 patient.

More about this topic here:

Stormberg, D., Roningstam, E., Gunderson, J., & Tohen, M. (1998) Pathological Narcissism in Bipolar Disorder Patients. Journal of Personality Disorders, 12, 179-185

Roningstam, E. (1996), Pathological Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder in Axis I Disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 3, 326-340



Sam Vaknin ( http://samvak.tripod.com ) is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He served as a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , and Bellaonline, and as a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent. He is the the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory and Suite101.


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