The Roots of Anti-Americanism

Written by Sam Vaknin

Continued from page 1

Despite its instinctual unilateralism,repparttar United States is never averse to exploiting multilateral institutions to its ends. It isrepparttar 126020 only shareholder with a veto power inrepparttar 126021 International Monetary Fund (IMF), by now widely considered to have degenerated into a long arm ofrepparttar 126022 American administration. The United Nations Security Council, raucous protestations aside, has rubber-stamped American martial exploits from Panama to Iraq.

It seems as though America uses - and thus, perforce, abuses -repparttar 126023 international system for its own, ever changing, ends. International law is invoked by it when convenient - ignored when importune.

In short, America is a bully. It is a law unto itself and it legislates onrepparttar 126024 fly, twisting arms and breaking bones when faced with opposition and ignoringrepparttar 126025 very edicts it promulgates at its convenience. Its soldiers and peacekeepers, its bankers and businessmen, its traders and diplomats are its long arms, an embodiment of this potent and malignant mixture of supremacy and contempt.

But why is America being singled out?

In politics and even more so in geopolitics, double standards and bullying are common. Apartheid South Africa, colonial France, mainland China, post-1967 Israel - and virtually every other polity - were at one time or another characterized by both. But while these countries usually mistreated only their own subjects -repparttar 126026 USA does so also exterritorialy.

Even as it never ceases to hector, preach, chastise, and instruct - it does not recoil from violating its own decrees and ignoring its own teachings. It is, therefore, notrepparttar 126027 USA's intrinsic nature, nor its self-perception, or social model that I find most reprehensible - but its actions, particularly its foreign policy.

America's manifest hypocrisy, its moral talk and often immoral walk, its persistent application of double standards, irks and grates. I firmly believe that it is better to face a forthright villain than a masquerading saint. It is easy to confront a Hitler, a Stalin, or a Mao, vile and bloodied, irredeemably depraved, worthy only of annihilation. The subtleties of coping withrepparttar 126028 United States are far more demanding - and far less rewarding.

This self-proclaimed champion of human rights has aided and abetted countless murderous dictatorships. This alleged sponsor of free trade - isrepparttar 126029 most protectionist of rich nations. This ostensible beacon of charity - contributes less than 0.1% of its GDP to foreign aid (compared to Scandinavia's 0.6%, for instance). This upright proponent of international law (under whose aegis it bombed and invaded half a dozen countries this past decade alone) - is in avowed opposition to crucial pillars ofrepparttar 126030 international order.

Naturally, America's enemies and critics are envious of its might and wealth. They would have probably actedrepparttar 126031 same asrepparttar 126032 United States, if they only could. But America's haughtiness and obtuse refusal to engage in soul searching and house cleaning do little to ameliorate this antagonism.

Torepparttar 126033 peoples ofrepparttar 126034 poor world, America is both a colonial power and a mercantilist exploiter. To further its geopolitical and economic goals from Central Asia torepparttar 126035 Middle East, it persists in buttressing regimes with scant regard for human rights, in cahoots with venal and sometimes homicidal indigenous politicians. And it drainsrepparttar 126036 developing world of its brains, its labour, and its raw materials, giving little in return.

All powers are self-interested - but America is narcissistic. It is bent on exploiting and, having exploited, on discarding. It is a global Dr. Frankenstein, spawning mutated monsters in its wake. Its "drain and dump" policies consistently boomerang to haunt it.

Both Saddam Hussein and Manuel Noriega - two acknowledged monsters - were aided and abetted byrepparttar 126037 CIA andrepparttar 126038 US military. America had to invade Panama to deposerepparttar 126039 latter and plans to invade Iraq forrepparttar 126040 second time to forcerepparttar 126041 removal ofrepparttar 126042 former.

The Kosovo Liberation Army, an American anti-Milosevic pet, provoked a civil war in Macedonia two years ago. Osama bin-Laden, another CIA golem, restored torepparttar 126043 USA, on September 11, 2001 some ofrepparttar 126044 materiel it so generously bestowed on him in his anti-Russian days.

Normallyrepparttar 126045 outcomes of expedience,repparttar 126046 Ugly American's alliances and allegiances shift kaleidoscopically. Pakistan and Libya were transmuted from foes to allies inrepparttar 126047 fortnight prior torepparttar 126048 Afghan campaign. Milosevic has metamorphosed from staunch ally to rabid foe in days.

This capricious inconsistency casts in grave doubt America's sincerity - and in sharp relief its unreliability and disloyalty, its short term thinking, truncated attention span, soundbite mentality, and dangerous, "black and white", simplism.

In its heartland, America is isolationist. Its denizens erroneously believe thatrepparttar 126049 Land ofrepparttar 126050 Free andrepparttar 126051 Home ofrepparttar 126052 Brave is an economically self-sufficient and self-contained continent. Yet, it is not what Americans trust or wish that matters to others. It is what they do. And what they do is meddle, often unilaterally, always ignorantly, sometimes forcefully.

Elsewhere, inevitable unilateralism is mitigated by inclusive cosmopolitanism. It is exacerbated by provincialism - and American decision-makers are mostly provincials, popularly elected by provincials. As opposed to Rome, or Great Britain, America is ill-suited and ill-equipped to micromanagerepparttar 126053 world.

It is too puerile, too abrasive, too arrogant - and it has a lot to learn. Its refusal to acknowledge its shortcomings, its confusion of brain with brawn (i.e., money or bombs), its legalistic-litigious character, its culture of instant gratification and one-dimensional over-simplification, its heartless lack of empathy, and bloated sense of entitlement - are detrimental to world peace and stability.

America is often called by others to intervene. Many initiate conflicts or prolong them withrepparttar 126054 express purpose of dragging America intorepparttar 126055 quagmire. It then is either castigated for not having responded to such calls - or reprimanded for having responded. It seems that it cannot win. Abstention and involvement alike garner it only ill-will.

But people call upon America to get involved because they know it rises torepparttar 126056 challenge. America should make it unequivocally and unambiguously clear that - withrepparttar 126057 exception ofrepparttar 126058 Americas - its sole interests rest in commerce. It should make it equally known that it will protect its citizens and defend its assets - if need be by force.

Indeed, America's - andrepparttar 126059 world's - best bet are a reversion torepparttar 126060 Monroe and (technologically updated) Mahan doctrines. Wilson's Fourteen Points broughtrepparttar 126061 USA nothing but two World Wars and a Cold War thereafter. It is time to disengage.

Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at

Just War

Written by Sam Vaknin

Continued from page 1

Having just cause (especially and, according torepparttar United Nations Charter, exclusively, self-defense);

Being (formally) declared by a proper authority;

Possessing a right intention;

Having a reasonable chance of success;

The end being proportional torepparttar 126019 means used."

Yet,repparttar 126020 evolution of warfare -repparttar 126021 invention of nuclear weapons,repparttar 126022 propagation of total war,repparttar 126023 ubiquity of guerrilla and national liberation movements,repparttar 126024 emergence of global, border-hopping terrorist organizations, of totalitarian regimes, and rogue or failed states - requires these principles to be modified by adding these tenets:

Thatrepparttar 126025 declaring authority is a lawfully and democratically elected government.

Thatrepparttar 126026 declaration of war reflectsrepparttar 126027 popular will.

(Extension of 3) The right intention is to act in just cause.

(Extension of 4) ... or a reasonable chance of avoiding an annihilating defeat.

(Extension of 5) Thatrepparttar 126028 outcomes of war are preferable torepparttar 126029 outcomes ofrepparttar 126030 preservation of peace.

Still,repparttar 126031 doctrine of just war, conceived in Europe in eras past, is fraying atrepparttar 126032 edges. Rights and corresponding duties are ill-defined or mismatched. What is legal is not always moral and what is legitimate is not invariably legal. Political realism and quasi-religious idealism sit uncomfortably withinrepparttar 126033 same conceptual framework. Norms are vague and debatable while customary law is only partially subsumed inrepparttar 126034 tradition (i.e., in treaties, conventions and other instruments, as well inrepparttar 126035 actual conduct of states).

The most contentious issue is, of course, what constitutes "just cause". Self-defense, in its narrowest sense (reaction to direct and overwhelming armed aggression), is a justified casus belli. But what aboutrepparttar 126036 use of force to (deontologically, consequentially, or ethically):

Prevent or ameliorate a slow-motion or permanent humanitarian crisis;

Preempt a clear and present danger of aggression ("anticipatory or preemptive self-defense" against what Grotius called "immediate danger");

Secure a safe environment for urgent and indispensable humanitarian relief operations;

Restore democracy inrepparttar 126037 attacked state ("regime change");

Restore public order inrepparttar 126038 attacked state;

Prevent human rights violations or crimes against humanity or violations of international law byrepparttar 126039 attacked state;

Keeprepparttar 126040 peace ("peacekeeping operations") and enforce compliance with international or bilateral treaties betweenrepparttar 126041 aggressor andrepparttar 126042 attacked state orrepparttar 126043 attacked state and a third party;

Suppress armed infiltration, indirect aggression, or civil strife aided and abetted byrepparttar 126044 attacked state;

Honor one's obligations to frameworks and treaties of collective self-defense;

Protect one's citizens orrepparttar 126045 citizens of a third party insiderepparttar 126046 attacked state;

Protect one's property or assets owned by a third party insiderepparttar 126047 attacked state;

Respond to an invitation byrepparttar 126048 authorities ofrepparttar 126049 attacked state - and with their expressed consent - to militarily intervene withinrepparttar 126050 territory ofrepparttar 126051 attacked state;

React to offenses againstrepparttar 126052 nation's honor or its economy.

Unless these issues are resolved and codified,repparttar 126053 entire edifice of international law - and, more specifically,repparttar 126054 law of war - is in danger of crumbling. The contemporary multilateral regime proved inadequate and unable to effectively tackle genocide (Rwanda, Bosnia), terror (in Africa, Central Asia, andrepparttar 126055 Middle East), weapons of mass destruction (Iraq, India, Israel, Pakistan, North Korea), and tyranny (in dozens of members ofrepparttar 126056 United Nations).

This feebleness inevitably led torepparttar 126057 resurgence of "might is right" unilateralism, as practiced, for instance, byrepparttar 126058 United States in places as diverse as Grenada and Iraq. This pernicious and ominous phenomenon is coupled with contempt towards and suspicion of international organizations, treaties, institutions, undertakings, andrepparttar 126059 prevailing consensual order.

In a unipolar world, reliant on a single superpower for its security,repparttar 126060 abrogation ofrepparttar 126061 rules ofrepparttar 126062 game could lead to chaotic and lethal anarchy with a multitude of "rebellions" againstrepparttar 126063 emergent American Empire. International law -repparttar 126064 formalism of "natural law" - is only one of many competing universalist and missionary value systems. Militant Islam is another. The West must adoptrepparttar 126065 former to counterrepparttar 126066 latter.

Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at

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