The Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics

Written by Sam Vaknin

Continued from page 1

Another, no less crucial, question relates torepparttar apparent arbitrariness ofrepparttar 127616 selection process. Allrepparttar 127617 "parts" of a superposition constitute potential collapse events and, therefore, can, in principle, be measured. Why is only one event measured in any given measurement? How is it "selected" to berepparttar 127618 collapse event? Why does it retain a privileged status versusrepparttar 127619 measurement apparatus or act?

It seems that preferred states have to do withrepparttar 127620 inexorable process ofrepparttar 127621 increase inrepparttar 127622 overall amount of order inrepparttar 127623 Universe. If other states were to have been selected, order would have diminished. The proof is again inrepparttar 127624 pudding: order does increase allrepparttar 127625 time – therefore, measurable collapse events and pointer states tend to increase order. There is a process of negative, order-orientated, selection: collapse events and states which tend to increase entropy are filtered out and statistically "avoided". They are measured less.

There seems to be a guiding principle (that ofrepparttar 127626 statistical increase of order inrepparttar 127627 Universe). This guiding principle cannot be communicated to quantum systems with each and every measurement because such communication would have to be superluminal. The only logical conclusion is that allrepparttar 127628 information relevant torepparttar 127629 decrease of entropy and torepparttar 127630 increase of order inrepparttar 127631 Universe is stored in each and every part ofrepparttar 127632 Universe, no matter how minuscule and how fundamental.

It is safe to assume that, very much like in living organisms, allrepparttar 127633 relevant information regardingrepparttar 127634 preferred (order-favoring) quantum states is stored in a kind of Physical DNA (PDNA). The unfolding of this PDNA takes place inrepparttar 127635 physical world, during interactions between physical systems (one of which isrepparttar 127636 measurement apparatus).

The Biological DNA contains allrepparttar 127637 information aboutrepparttar 127638 living organism and is replicated trillions of times over, stored inrepparttar 127639 basic units ofrepparttar 127640 organism,repparttar 127641 cell. What reason is there to assume that nature deviated from this (very pragmatic) principle in other realms of existence? Why not repeat this winning design in quarks?

The Biological variant of DNA requires a biochemical context (environment) to translate itself into an organism – an environment made up of amino acids, etc. The PDNA probably also requires some type of context:repparttar 127642 physical world as revealed throughrepparttar 127643 act of measurement.

The information stored inrepparttar 127644 physical particle is structural because order has to do with structure. Very much like a fractal (or a hologram), every particle reflectsrepparttar 127645 whole Universe accurately andrepparttar 127646 same laws of nature apply to both. Considerrepparttar 127647 startling similarities betweenrepparttar 127648 formalisms andrepparttar 127649 laws that pertain to subatomic particles and black holes.

Moreover,repparttar 127650 distinction between functional (operational) and structural information is superfluous and artificial. There is a magnitude bias here: being creatures ofrepparttar 127651 macrocosm, form and function look to us distinct. But if we accept that "function" is merely what we call an increase in order thenrepparttar 127652 distinction is cancelled becauserepparttar 127653 only way to measurerepparttar 127654 increase in order is structurally. We measure functioning (=the increase in order) using structural methods (the alignment or arrangement of instruments).

Still,repparttar 127655 information contained in each particle should encompass, at least,repparttar 127656 relevant (close, non-negligible and non-cancelable) parts ofrepparttar 127657 Universe. This is a tremendous amount of data. How is it stored in tiny corpuscles?

Either utilizing methods and processes which we are far even from guessing – or elserepparttar 127658 relevant information is infinitesimally (almost vanishingly) small.

The extent of necessary information contained in each and every physical particle could be somehow linked to (even equal to)repparttar 127659 number of possible quantum states, torepparttar 127660 superposition itself, or torepparttar 127661 collapse event. It may well be thatrepparttar 127662 whole Universe can be adequately encompassed in an unbelievably minute, negligibly tiny, amount of data which is incorporated in those quantum supercomputers that today, for lack of better understanding, we call "particles".

Technical Note

Our Universe can be mathematically described as a "matched" or PLL filter whose properties let throughrepparttar 127663 collapsed outcomes of wave functions (when measured) - orrepparttar 127664 "signal". The rest ofrepparttar 127665 superposition (orrepparttar 127666 other "Universes" in a Multiverse) can be represented as "noise". Our Universe, therefore, enhancesrepparttar 127667 signal-to-noise ratio through acts of measurement (a generalization ofrepparttar 127668 anthropic principle).


Ollivier H., Poulin D. & Zurek W. H. Phys. Rev. Lett., 93. 220401 (2004). Zurek W. H. Arxiv, Preprint (2004).

Sam Vaknin ( ) is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He served as a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , and Bellaonline, and as a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent. He is the the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory and Suite101.

Alternative Energy Series Cheap, Clean Energy Everywhere Now!

Written by Ed Howes

Continued from page 1

It has never beenrepparttar case that piston engines are inefficient and they could serve us very well intorepparttar 127615 Twenty Second Century as soon as we deep six their liquid, slow burn fuel systems. The reasons Charles Pogue never realizedrepparttar 127616 tremendous power potential of his fast burn, 200 mile per gallon Ford sedan, was likely two things. The hot gasoline vapor made with exhaust system heat and inappropriate spark timing for an engine that requiredrepparttar 127617 spark to come about eighty crank degrees later thanrepparttar 127618 timing it had as a slow burn factory engine. Combustion performance enthusiastsrepparttar 127619 world over, knowrepparttar 127620 coldest, densest air/fuel mixture makesrepparttar 127621 best power. These people can also understand that making peak cylinder pressures whenrepparttar 127622 piston is nearrepparttar 127623 top ofrepparttar 127624 power stroke, only tries to pushrepparttar 127625 crankshaft out ofrepparttar 127626 engine, ontorepparttar 127627 ground - wasted energy like standing onrepparttar 127628 bicycle pedal atrepparttar 127629 very top.

What we want is cold vapor fuel which is much more easily created than Charles’ exhaust heated fuel. The secret isrepparttar 127630 vaporizing power of vacuum. Success in cold vaporizing has been demonstrated by radio frequency vaporizing chambers. Butrepparttar 127631 piston engine operates on a vacuum system. Inrepparttar 127632 days of carburetors, vacuum drew inrepparttar 127633 air torepparttar 127634 engine’s cylinders and meteredrepparttar 127635 fuel fairly accurately by means of that same vacuum and simple mechanical adjustments to fuel flow.

Modern electronic fuel injection is perhapsrepparttar 127636 most expensive incremental improvement to slow burn technology inrepparttar 127637 Twentieth Century. It served multiple purposes. It exchanged a good, simple system, with a slightly better complex system. Computer controls took auto repair out ofrepparttar 127638 realm of backyard mechanics and restricted it to $50 - 70 per hour service centers - a great big bonus forrepparttar 127639 auto service industry and a big expense torepparttar 127640 do -it -yourselfer.

I am no combustion engineer, nor do I wish to become one. I can only say I intuitively expect two horsepower per cubic inch displacement on any four stroke spark engine modified for cold vapor fuel, using an appropriately sized carburetor as would be done on a slow burn engine.

I further expect that a performance modification that would increaserepparttar 127641 power of a slow burn engine by fifty percent, will increaserepparttar 127642 power of a fast burn engine by sixty to one hundred per cent. Allrepparttar 127643 common power boosting practices work on fast burn engines better than slow burn. Compression ratios are not critical asrepparttar 127644 octane of pure vapor is up around 110. A 12 to one compression ratio would be about 9 to 1 at 45 degrees after top dead center, whenrepparttar 127645 spark would occur at full power. While misfire can occur as often as 3 - 4 cycles per hundred on a new V-8 engine, misfires would be very rare with fast burn engines due torepparttar 127646 lower compression at ignition andrepparttar 127647 evenness of a lean air/vapor mixture. The fast burn engine may be supercharged with a draw through carburetor producingrepparttar 127648 vacuum to operate a fresh air bubbler atrepparttar 127649 bottom ofrepparttar 127650 fuel tank. If a richer vapor is desired inrepparttar 127651 bubbler, a racing fuel cell can be used, packed with fuel cell foam, greatly increasingrepparttar 127652 surface area exposed to liquid fuel, vacuum will readily vaporize. Large metal fuel tanks should be reinforced top and bottom by epoxying bar stock or angle stock, so they do not collapse under vacuum.

Lastly, I would like to mention that fast burn technology is a multi fuel system. With a little experimenting and fine tuning of mixture and spark, a fast burn engine can burn gasoline, alcohol, diesel, kerosene, vegetable oil, propane and liquefied natural gas. The fuel withrepparttar 127653 greatest latent energy per pound will deliverrepparttar 127654 best performance andrepparttar 127655 least powerful fuel will deliver very adequate performance. If you are anxious to try a fast burn conversion, please read my Fast Burn Conversion essay for tips and details for a safe conversion. Here‘s to big, clean, cheap power forrepparttar 127656 new age!

Freelance writer published on many websites and newspapers.

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