The Emerging Water Wars - Part II

Written by Sam Vaknin

Continued from page 1

"Control of Water Resources (state and non-state actors): where water supplies or access to water is atrepparttar root of tensions. Military Tool (state actors): where water resources, or water systems themselves, are used by a nation or state as a weapon during a military action. Political Tool (state and non-state actors): where water resources, or water systems themselves, are used by a nation, state, or non-state actor for a political goal. Terrorism (non-state actors): where water resources, or water systems, are either targets or tools of violence or coercion by non-state actors. Military Target (state actors): where water resource systems are targets of military actions by nations or states. Development Disputes (state and non-state actors): where water resources or water systems are a major source of contention and dispute inrepparttar 132308 context of economic and social development." Mark de Villiers, author of "Water Wars" contrasts, in ITT's aforementioned Guidebook, two opposing views aboutrepparttar 132309 likelihood of water-related conflicts. Thomas Homer-Dixon,repparttar 132310 Canadian security analyst says:

"Water supplies are needed for all aspects of national activity, includingrepparttar 132311 production and use of military power, and rich countries are as dependent on water as poor countries are ... Moreover, about 40 percent ofrepparttar 132312 world's population lives inrepparttar 132313 250 river basins shared by more than one country ... But ... wars over river water between upstream and downstream neighbors are likely only in a narrow set of circumstances. The downstream country must be highly dependent onrepparttar 132314 water for its national well-being;repparttar 132315 upstream country must be able to restrictrepparttar 132316 river's flow; there must be a history of antagonism betweenrepparttar 132317 two countries; and, most important,repparttar 132318 downstream country must be militarily much stronger thanrepparttar 132319 upstream country."

Frederick Frey, ofrepparttar 132320 University of Pennsylvania, disagrees:

"Water has four primary characteristics of political importance: extreme importance, scarcity, maldistribution, and being shared. These make internecine conflict over water more likely than similar conflicts over other resources. Moreover, tendencies towards water conflicts are exacerbated by rampant population growth and water-wasteful economic development. A national and international 'power shortage,' inrepparttar 132321 sense of an inability to control these two trends, makesrepparttar 132322 problem even more alarming."

Who is right?

The citizens of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu states in India are enmeshed in bloody skirmishes overrepparttar 132323 waters ofrepparttar 132324 Carvery River. Colonel Quaddafi has been depletingrepparttar 132325 Iittoral aquifer inrepparttar 132326 Sahara for decades now - torepparttar 132327 detriment of all his neighbors - yet, not a single violent incident has been recorded. Last year,repparttar 132328 Rio Grande has failed to reachrepparttar 132329 Gulf of Mexico - forrepparttar 132330 first time in many decades. Yet, no war erupted betweenrepparttar 132331 USA and Mexico.

As water become more scarce, market solutions are bound to emerge. Water is heavily subsidized and, as a direct result, atrociously wasted. More realistic pricing would do wonders onrepparttar 132332 demand side. Water rights are already traded electronically inrepparttar 132333 USA. Private utilities and water markets arerepparttar 132334 next logical step.

Water recycling is another feasible alternative. Despite unmanageable financial problems and laughable prices,repparttar 132335 municipality of Moscow maintains enormous treatment plants and re-uses most of its water.

Wars arerepparttar 132336 outcomes of cultures and mores. Not every casus belli leads to belligerence. Not every conflict, however severe, ends in battle. Mankind has invented numerous other conflict-resolution mechanisms. There is no reason to assume that water would cause more warfare than oil or national pride. But water scarcity sure causes dislocation, ethnic tension, impoverishment, social anomy, and a host of other ills. It is in fending off these pernicious, all-pervasive, and slow-acting social processes that we should concentrate our efforts.

Sam Vaknin ( ) is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He served as a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , and Bellaonline, and as a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent. He is the the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory and Suite101.

Curbing the Public Nuisance (Part 1)

Written by David Leonhardt

Continued from page 1

Automation ofrepparttar public nuisance was inevitable. As cities expanded, it was getting harder and harder forrepparttar 132306 public nuisance to be everywhere at once and provide adequate disturbance torepparttar 132307 entire population.

It was also very inefficient to have individual public nuisances repeatingrepparttar 132308 same tasks in each part of town.

And then there wasrepparttar 132309 issue of quality control. Who would ensure that allrepparttar 132310 public nuisances were servingrepparttar 132311 community torepparttar 132312 same standards? Who would ensure accountability and integrity? Some public nuisances have been known to take payola.

"Hey. You. What's that stench?"

"I'm just cracking a few eggs to throw at your house."

"Why at my house? What did I do?"

"Nothing. But you have a fancy house and I figured you would be most willing to provide me an incentive to throw them somewhere else."

"What!? This is extortion!"


"I see. Well, Smithers downrepparttar 132313 road has been way too uppity this week, so here's a little something to go be a his public nuisance tonight."

"Thank you, Sir. It's been a pleasure disturbing you."

I was stumped. I really had no idea how to end this column. "Mayberepparttar 132314 public nuisance should be a she," I mused

"Why a she?" my wife asked.

"Because people complain if I just assume my characters are "he". The trouble is, whenever I make them "she", somebody wants to know why I'm picking on women."

"They would if you makerepparttar 132315 public nuisance a woman," my wife observed.

"Are you saying women are never nuisances?"

"Everybody knows that you men cause allrepparttar 132316 public disturbances," my wife poked me.

"That's because men get bored you women try on more clothes and more clothes and more clothes. We are just trying to keep things interesting"

"Men have such a short attention span..."

Suddenly I knew how to endrepparttar 132317 column: In our household, we have no need for a public nuisance automated or manual. We each have our own private nuisance, whom we love very much.

"That's no way to end a column," my private nuisance insisted. "Why not tell them about how you would get rid of public nuisances once and for all?"

"Shhh. Don't tell them. That's next week's column."

David Leonhardt is a freelance writer And an SEO consultant: He is author of Climb Your Stairway to Heaven Read more personal growth articles:

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