The Colour of Electrons and the CCD

Written by Charles Douglas Wehner

Continued from page 1

In some of my work I have reintroducedrepparttar concept of aether, but not as a SUBSTANCE. To me, there is a need for a grid of lines in space, for navigation. As on a map there is latitude and longitude (which are not substances), so in space we need a kind of latitude, longitude and altitude. Without that we get lost.

Butrepparttar 127661 question of whether light is particles or waves was never resolved. Sometimes it behaves as one, and sometimes asrepparttar 127662 other.

Again,repparttar 127663 concept that there is only one kind of charge-carrier has been overthrown. In solids there can be positive, negative or both.

A conductor conducts both charge-carriers. A vacuum conducts onlyrepparttar 127664 negative ones. So a vacuum is an N-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR.

The discovery of semiconductors led to huge advances inrepparttar 127665 field of electronics. There are P-TYPE as well as N-TYPE semiconductors, and a remarkable symmetry of behaviour can be seen between them.

So light is like a particle inrepparttar 127666 VACUUM STATE, and showsrepparttar 127667 properties of a wave inrepparttar 127668 SOLID STATE.


My interest in these things is not amusement alone. Wherever profound discoveries are made, profound new benefits to Mankind become possible.

If a metal is used for that photocell plate, that needs 1.5 volts, and infra-red shines upon it at 1.7 eV, electrons emerge at 0.2 volts.

Ifrepparttar 127669 light is at 2.5 eV,repparttar 127670 "secondary electrons" will have 1 volt of charge. Ifrepparttar 127671 light is blue, at 3 volts,repparttar 127672 elctrons will have 1.5 volts. It is a simple subtraction process. That is Einstein's photoelectric effect.

So with a field plate charged to minus 0.2 volts, we can push backrepparttar 127673 "infra-red electrons". With minus 1 volt onrepparttar 127674 plate, we can push backrepparttar 127675 yellow ones. With minus 1.5 volts, we can push back evenrepparttar 127676 blue electrons.

Infra-red electrons? Yellow electrons? Blue electrons? In reality, these things are not their colours but their speeds. For each electron retainsrepparttar 127677 energy that was left over afterrepparttar 127678 Einstein Work-Function was subtracted fromrepparttar 127679 photon.

This makesrepparttar 127680 colour sensitivity of a digital image-sensor PROGRAMMABLE. Instead of having red, green and blue filters on an image sensor, we can have NO FILTERS.

Digital techniques are used to analyserepparttar 127681 colour ofrepparttar 127682 image. The benefits are enormous.

For example, we live in a world of daylight and artificial light. Daylight is rich in blue, tungsten light is rich in red. Whenrepparttar 127683 colour balance ofrepparttar 127684 device depends not upon chemical filters with their fixed colours, but upon software,repparttar 127685 device can better adapt torepparttar 127686 lighting.

You can read about this new concept in CCD image sensor design at . Seven related inventions are also described, to helprepparttar 127687 design along.

Charles Douglas Wehner

Born in 1944, Charles Douglas Wehner was a factory manager, design engineer and technical author in photoelectrics.

Our Bodies, Our Fears

Written by Ransy Reynis

Continued from page 1


Iraqi civilians are no doubt askingrepparttar same question. Israelis and Palestinians have asked it for decades. And though America’s current worries may seem unprecedented,repparttar 127660 current situation has nothing onrepparttar 127661 1918 flu pandemic orrepparttar 127662 Cuban missile crisis. Yet none of that makes living with fear any easier. As Drs. Afton Hassett and Leonard Sigal of New Jersey’s Robert Wood Johnson Medical School wrote recently, we’re living in a “chronic heightened state of alertness and ... helplessness,” prompted by a “poorly defined ... danger that could strike at any time in any form without warning.” Such feelings can be as unhealthy as they are unpleasant, impairing immunity, interrupting sleep and exacerbating everything from acne to ulcers. “The psychological state of fear affects us biologically,” says Los Angeles psychiatrist Carole Lieberman. “People who are anxious drink and eat more. They have more accidents. They’re more likely to get colds or suffer heart attacks.” In short, as University of Michigan neuroscientist Stephen Maren puts it, a brain system designed to keep us from getting eaten is now “eating away at us.”

Thanks Ransy Reynis

Ransy Reynis is an Independent Wealth Builder and a Web designer. Helping individuals earn career incomes from home.

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