Staying Safe When There's Lightning Around

Written by Graham McClung

Continued from page 1

Unfortunatelyrepparttar effects of a non fatal lightning injury are often severe and long lasting - often life changing. They can include impaired mental ability and chronic pain.

But survival is better thanrepparttar 105812 alternative, and immediate first aid after a lightning strike is critical.

The first thing to remember is thatrepparttar 105813 injured person is not "live" - you won't get a shock when you touch them.

Secondly, CPR - cardio pulmonary resuscitation - should always be attempted ifrepparttar 105814 victim has no pulse or is not breathing. A lightning strike can stop either or both ofrepparttar 105815 heart or breathing.

Thirdly, medical attention is necessary, even ifrepparttar 105816 person seems to have recovered.

Reducing The Risk of a Lightning Strike

Many, if not most, lightning casualties are avoidable. The small but real risks can be minimised by making a few small sacrifices to your present enjoyment. The peace of mind you gain will make it worthwhile.

Firstly, move torepparttar 105817 safest possible shelter as soon as you are aware of an approaching storm. Careful observation ofrepparttar 105818 weather is a good guide, and lightning detectors are definitely worth considering, particularly if you are responsible for others such as a children's sports team or an outdoor work crew.

In most cases, once you can hear thunder you are withinrepparttar 105819 danger zone, and it's time to move quickly.

Now I know that almost every time an early move to shelter will turn out to be unnecessary, and you may not always get a warm reception for your course of action. But imagine repparttar 105820 alternative if half a dozen kids are injured or worse after a lightning strike during a soccer or baseball game.

The best shelter is a fully enclosed building, bearing in mindrepparttar 105821 easily avoidable risks associated with telephones, electric appliances and plumbing.

Next best is an all metal car withrepparttar 105822 windows closed - preferably not parked atrepparttar 105823 top of a hill or under a tall tree.

Probablyrepparttar 105824 third choice would be in a group of small trees - assuming there are taller ones around. Tall trees are high risk, as are isolated structures such as water tanks. Partly open sheds are of dubious value and offer their occupants little protection if struck.

Open spaces are dangerous places to be, and you should have plenty of time to move elsewhere. Beingrepparttar 105825 highest point in a large area is not a good survival strategy.

If however you have no alternative, look for a lower area that is not water logged, squat down onrepparttar 105826 balls of your feet, with your head down. Don't lie onrepparttar 105827 ground, and stay away from wire fences.

And once you are safe, just sit back and enjoyrepparttar 105828 show.

Copyright 2005, Graham McClung. A retired geologist, Graham McClung has had a lifelong interest in the outdoors. And where there's outdoors there's weather. He is the editor of, where you can find reviews and advice to help you choose and use your own home weather station. You can contact him by email at

Human Evolution Timeline: Revelations in Bible Quotes

Written by Ruy Miranda

Continued from page 1

The faithful cling torepparttar first answer,repparttar 105811 dogma.

But those who are not faithful may properly ask how those writers, barely out of a semi-nomadic life, could possess such knowledge aboutrepparttar 105812 evolution ofrepparttar 105813 species. Examined as a book and without any preconceived position,repparttar 105814 Bible is a singular book and its writers differed from common mortals. However, as intelligent as they might have been, there was no way they could have held such knowledge. Thusrepparttar 105815 answer is: this is a mystery yet.

Book of Genesis & Science: More convergence

Inrepparttar 105816 pleasant study of Biblical numbers involving creation vs. evolution, there are other convergent points. Example: part ofrepparttar 105817 sacred text reproduced atrepparttar 105818 beginning of this article and science's version ofrepparttar 105819 differences in man/ape. The Genesis expression "closed uprepparttar 105820 flesh in its place" conveys a special meaning and suggests more parallelisms between religion and science. It could be read as "closed uprepparttar 105821 frontal lobe in its place".

Inrepparttar 105822 monkeysrepparttar 105823 frontal lobe is 9% ofrepparttar 105824 brain. Inrepparttar 105825 man it is 30%. The frontal lobe is a tissue ("flesh"), a nervous tissue. The frontal lobe integrates most ofrepparttar 105826 brain functions. Its prefrontal portion is related torepparttar 105827 initiation of planned actions, i.e., thinking, idealizing, acting in orderly fashion, and letting out emotional expressions. Inrepparttar 105828 difference isrepparttar 105829 "closed uprepparttar 105830 flesh in its place."

Subsequent Procreation

The appearance ofrepparttar 105831 human being raisesrepparttar 105832 issue of procreation. Inrepparttar 105833 history of creation, this problem does not exist: once created, Adam and Eve started to reproduce. However, in evolution, ONE individual, fromrepparttar 105834 fusion ofrepparttar 105835 two chromosomes, would not give origin torepparttar 105836 human species. To illustrate,suppose thatrepparttar 105837 fusion ofrepparttar 105838 two chromosomes took place in a female, resulting in 23 chromosomes inrepparttar 105839 gametes, living with males bearing 24 chromosomes inrepparttar 105840 gametes. Procreation would be impossible. Even if they copulated, no ovulum would be formed due torepparttar 105841 lack of symmetry inrepparttar 105842 DNA. How, then, wouldrepparttar 105843 human being have procreated in evolution?

More likelyrepparttar 105844 phenomenon - physical, chemical or physical-chemical - had by then reached several individual chimps, causing chromosome fusion in many of them, both males and females. Inrepparttar 105845 history of evolution, there is still another peculiarity:repparttar 105846 bonobos have more elements thanrepparttar 105847 chimpanzees to be man's ancestors.

Chimpanzees vs Bonobos

Preference forrepparttar 105848 chimpanzees overrepparttar 105849 bonobos - Inrepparttar 105850 evolutionary scale, science shows preference forrepparttar 105851 chimpanzees overrepparttar 105852 bonobos, even thoughrepparttar 105853 latter are more similar to human beings. See some ones:

the similarity percentage between bonobos' DNA and humans' is greater than that of chimpanzees;

their genitals are more protuding and face forward, as with humans; except for humans, they arerepparttar 105854 only primates who copulate fromrepparttar 105855 front;

they engage in homosexual and heterosexual relations;

upon reaching adolescence,repparttar 105856 females abandon their group and join another one. In their new group they submit themselves torepparttar 105857 female - including sexually - and then copulate withrepparttar 105858 males;

the females keep together in groups andrepparttar 105859 male respects them because, together, they will fight him for food;

they stand on two legs more frequently than chimps do and their laughter is more expressive. They are also more cordial inrepparttar 105860 group.

Despite all this, it is believed that man has evolved from chimps, due torepparttar 105861 fact that they are found in many African regions, in wide-open areas, which would have favored their territorial dispersion. Bonobos, onrepparttar 105862 other hand, live in closed-in woods, in some regions in Africa. However, fromrepparttar 105863 genetic, anatomic, emotional and behavioral standpoints, more likelyrepparttar 105864 human species has come fromrepparttar 105865 bonobos. Perhaps, after their community was hard-hit by a cataclysm, they took refuge in closed-in woods.

Man's Ancestor: Neither Chimpanzee nor Bonobos and Adam`s Rib

Another theory admits that chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutangs, gibbons, all belong torepparttar 105866 primate family known as Pongid, just likerepparttar 105867 Hominid family, whose sole representative is man, all belonging torepparttar 105868 Hominoids super family, and would have come from individuals known as Old World Monkeys.

It is possible that some violent environmental change hit Africa and Asia, alteringrepparttar 105869 genetic structure of many Old World Monkeys (Cercopitecoids) sometime between six million and twenty-five million years ago. Different Pongids came into being.

Why would not different hominids have appeared? Present day human must have featured differences among individuals fromrepparttar 105870 very beginning. For instance, there must have appeared atrepparttar 105871 same time individuals with white skin and with black skin in Africa and in Asia. Weather conditions andrepparttar 105872 fight for survival would have made easier for white-skinned individuals to disappear from Africa and for black-skinned individuals to disappear from ice-cold regions.

The theory of a common trunk for all Hominoids does not changerepparttar 105873 parallel with Adam's rib. The whole Hominoid super family would have come from individuals with 24 chromosomes inrepparttar 105874 gametes. One family (Pongid) continued with 24 chromosomes inrepparttar 105875 gametes while another (Hominid) appeared with 23 chromosomes.

Ruy Miranda is a Brazilian Physician and a former University Professor. In he offers articles on Bible and science and excerpts of his novel "Bible Quotes in Crystal Land". He is not a religious person.

You may reproduce this article as long as it is in its complete form and that the resource box is included. Copyright 2004-2005, Ruy Miranda, all rights reserved.

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