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The faithful cling to first answer, dogma.
But those who are not faithful may properly ask how those writers, barely out of a semi-nomadic life, could possess such knowledge about evolution of species. Examined as a book and without any preconceived position, Bible is a singular book and its writers differed from common mortals. However, as intelligent as they might have been, there was no way they could have held such knowledge. Thus answer is: this is a mystery yet.
Book of Genesis & Science: More convergence
In pleasant study of Biblical numbers involving creation vs. evolution, there are other convergent points. Example: part of sacred text reproduced at beginning of this article and science's version of differences in man/ape. The Genesis expression "closed up flesh in its place" conveys a special meaning and suggests more parallelisms between religion and science. It could be read as "closed up frontal lobe in its place".
In monkeys frontal lobe is 9% of brain. In man it is 30%. The frontal lobe is a tissue ("flesh"), a nervous tissue. The frontal lobe integrates most of brain functions. Its prefrontal portion is related to initiation of planned actions, i.e., thinking, idealizing, acting in orderly fashion, and letting out emotional expressions. In difference is "closed up flesh in its place."
The appearance of human being raises issue of procreation. In history of creation, this problem does not exist: once created, Adam and Eve started to reproduce. However, in evolution, ONE individual, from fusion of two chromosomes, would not give origin to human species. To illustrate,suppose that fusion of two chromosomes took place in a female, resulting in 23 chromosomes in gametes, living with males bearing 24 chromosomes in gametes. Procreation would be impossible. Even if they copulated, no ovulum would be formed due to lack of symmetry in DNA. How, then, would human being have procreated in evolution?
More likely phenomenon - physical, chemical or physical-chemical - had by then reached several individual chimps, causing chromosome fusion in many of them, both males and females. In history of evolution, there is still another peculiarity: bonobos have more elements than chimpanzees to be man's ancestors.
Chimpanzees vs Bonobos
Preference for chimpanzees over bonobos - In evolutionary scale, science shows preference for chimpanzees over bonobos, even though latter are more similar to human beings. See some ones:
the similarity percentage between bonobos' DNA and humans' is greater than that of chimpanzees;
their genitals are more protuding and face forward, as with humans; except for humans, they are only primates who copulate from front;
they engage in homosexual and heterosexual relations;
upon reaching adolescence, females abandon their group and join another one. In their new group they submit themselves to female - including sexually - and then copulate with males;
the females keep together in groups and male respects them because, together, they will fight him for food;
they stand on two legs more frequently than chimps do and their laughter is more expressive. They are also more cordial in group.
Despite all this, it is believed that man has evolved from chimps, due to fact that they are found in many African regions, in wide-open areas, which would have favored their territorial dispersion. Bonobos, on other hand, live in closed-in woods, in some regions in Africa. However, from genetic, anatomic, emotional and behavioral standpoints, more likely human species has come from bonobos. Perhaps, after their community was hard-hit by a cataclysm, they took refuge in closed-in woods.
Man's Ancestor: Neither Chimpanzee nor Bonobos and Adam`s Rib
Another theory admits that chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutangs, gibbons, all belong to primate family known as Pongid, just like Hominid family, whose sole representative is man, all belonging to Hominoids super family, and would have come from individuals known as Old World Monkeys.
It is possible that some violent environmental change hit Africa and Asia, altering genetic structure of many Old World Monkeys (Cercopitecoids) sometime between six million and twenty-five million years ago. Different Pongids came into being.
Why would not different hominids have appeared? Present day human must have featured differences among individuals from very beginning. For instance, there must have appeared at same time individuals with white skin and with black skin in Africa and in Asia. Weather conditions and fight for survival would have made easier for white-skinned individuals to disappear from Africa and for black-skinned individuals to disappear from ice-cold regions.
The theory of a common trunk for all Hominoids does not change parallel with Adam's rib. The whole Hominoid super family would have come from individuals with 24 chromosomes in gametes. One family (Pongid) continued with 24 chromosomes in gametes while another (Hominid) appeared with 23 chromosomes.
Ruy Miranda is a Brazilian Physician and a former University Professor. In http://www.bible-quotes-science-info.com he offers articles on Bible and science and excerpts of his novel "Bible Quotes in Crystal Land". He is not a religious person.
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