Short-Circuit Biasing of Transistors

Written by Charles Douglas Wehner

Continued from page 1

There is no point in keeping good ideas secret until one dies. If one cannot use it - SHARE IT. And hope, perhaps, that those who gain benefit from it will reward you inrepparttar future.

Duringrepparttar 127674 thirty years that this concept was kept secret, millions of radios, televisions and portable telephones were manufactured. In many cases, enormous savings could have been made on each item. The economic value ofrepparttar 127675 concept can be reckoned in billions of dollars worldwide.


Charles Douglas Wehner

Charles Douglas Wehner was born in 1944. He was a technical draughtsman in computer manufacture in 1962, and became a technical author (radars of Concorde and Harrier as well as nucleonics), design engineer and factory manager. Further experience was in measurement-and-control systems, photoelectrics and ultrasonics.

Charles Wehner was professionally active in Britain and Germany.


Written by Charles Douglas Wehner

Continued from page 1

Sorepparttar hand of a child can spin a spinning-top (the energy required is small). However, canrepparttar 127673 hand of a child putrepparttar 127674 Universe into orbit around that spinnin-top, and at several times or several hundred times per second?

Spin-orbit duality breaks down somewhere.

One can userepparttar 127675 "Law of Conservation of Energy" to avoid such absurd notions as a child settingrepparttar 127676 Universe in motion. However, we must consider RELATIVITY.

Newtonian mechanics says that energy cannot be created or destroyed.

Einstein's relativity says that energy can be destroyed. If there is MATTER, such as an ELECTRON, it has REST-MASS. Here we must already say "AT rest - RELATIVE to what"? However, we will leave this point unanswered, because this article is very general.

According to Relativity, a tiny increase in speed from rest of that electron will give it energy HALF M (V squared), where M isrepparttar 127677 rest-mass. This energy will be destroyed by being incorporated intorepparttar 127678 mass ofrepparttar 127679 electron. So using M2 (C squared), we can compute M2.

Asrepparttar 127680 electron goes faster, by an identical tiny increase in speed, its energy is HALF (M+M2) (V squared), then HALF (M+M2+M3) (V squared) and so on.

Whenrepparttar 127681 Moon is travelling at 65 thousand miles per hour, this compares with light travelling at 669,600,000 miles per hour, approximately.

Light travels therefore at a speed about TEN THOUSAND times faster thanrepparttar 127682 Moon.

The change in mass is proportional to C-squared, just asrepparttar 127683 energy of motion is proportional to V-squared. So speeds of one ten-thousandth of that of light (four places) will deliver energy equations that are accurate to EIGHT.

It would be nonsense, however, to use my antigravity equations to TWENTY places of decimals and to expect all places to be valid.

We see relativity creeping in, and upsettingrepparttar 127684 mathematics - but inrepparttar 127685 Earth-Moon system it is still imperceptible. That is why I usedrepparttar 127686 "Law of Conservation of Energy" to deriverepparttar 127687 results -repparttar 127688 errors are still small.

The Moon is a quarter of a million miles away from Earth. So is we multiply this by ten thousand we get TWO-AND-A-HALF THOUSAND-MILLION miles. This is about 26.8 Astronomical Units. At this point,repparttar 127689 orbital velocity is similar torepparttar 127690 speed of light, and Einstein says thatrepparttar 127691 mathematics breaks down.

So if we considerrepparttar 127692 hand of a child spinning a top, and INSIST onrepparttar 127693 conservation of energy, we must adjustrepparttar 127694 expression HALF M (V-squared) as we move away fromrepparttar 127695 child's top.

Eitherrepparttar 127696 mass M of bodies must be adjusted to become less and less,repparttar 127697 further away we go (RELATIVITY MASS), orrepparttar 127698 velocity V of bodies must become less and less as we move away fromrepparttar 127699 spinning body (RELATIVITY VELOCITY).

It makes a kind of sense to choose to alter V. However, this is composed of two fundamental units, distance D and time T, where V=D/T.

We cannot alterrepparttar 127700 distance, because it is Pi timesrepparttar 127701 diameter ofrepparttar 127702 "orbit". So if D cannot diminish, T must INCREASE.

What this means is that a perceived time T is actually LONGER at that distant place than we had known.

So we need TIME DILATION to deal withrepparttar 127703 breakdown of spin-orbit duality at relativistic speeds.

Fortunately, linear particle-accelerators have successfully slowed down time until mesons that lived for just a microsecond could be studied for SECONDS.

So Einstein's time-dilation has been PROVEN.

The conundrum of spin-orbit duality breakdown has delivered a similar result. Einstein has been vindicated again.

Charles Douglas Wehner

Charles Douglas Wehner was born in 1944. He was a technical author, a design engineer and the manager of a photoelectrics manufacturing company.

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