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So hand of a child can spin a spinning-top (the energy required is small). However, can hand of a child put Universe into orbit around that spinnin-top, and at several times or several hundred times per second?
Spin-orbit duality breaks down somewhere.
One can use "Law of Conservation of Energy" to avoid such absurd notions as a child setting Universe in motion. However, we must consider RELATIVITY.
Newtonian mechanics says that energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Einstein's relativity says that energy can be destroyed. If there is MATTER, such as an ELECTRON, it has REST-MASS. Here we must already say "AT rest - RELATIVE to what"? However, we will leave this point unanswered, because this article is very general.
According to Relativity, a tiny increase in speed from rest of that electron will give it energy HALF M (V squared), where M is rest-mass. This energy will be destroyed by being incorporated into mass of electron. So using M2 (C squared), we can compute M2.
As electron goes faster, by an identical tiny increase in speed, its energy is HALF (M+M2) (V squared), then HALF (M+M2+M3) (V squared) and so on.
When Moon is travelling at 65 thousand miles per hour, this compares with light travelling at 669,600,000 miles per hour, approximately.
Light travels therefore at a speed about TEN THOUSAND times faster than Moon.
The change in mass is proportional to C-squared, just as energy of motion is proportional to V-squared. So speeds of one ten-thousandth of that of light (four places) will deliver energy equations that are accurate to EIGHT.
It would be nonsense, however, to use my antigravity equations to TWENTY places of decimals and to expect all places to be valid.
We see relativity creeping in, and upsetting mathematics - but in Earth-Moon system it is still imperceptible. That is why I used "Law of Conservation of Energy" to derive results - errors are still small.
The Moon is a quarter of a million miles away from Earth. So is we multiply this by ten thousand we get TWO-AND-A-HALF THOUSAND-MILLION miles. This is about 26.8 Astronomical Units. At this point, orbital velocity is similar to speed of light, and Einstein says that mathematics breaks down.
So if we consider hand of a child spinning a top, and INSIST on conservation of energy, we must adjust expression HALF M (V-squared) as we move away from child's top.
Either mass M of bodies must be adjusted to become less and less, further away we go (RELATIVITY MASS), or velocity V of bodies must become less and less as we move away from spinning body (RELATIVITY VELOCITY).
It makes a kind of sense to choose to alter V. However, this is composed of two fundamental units, distance D and time T, where V=D/T.
We cannot alter distance, because it is Pi times diameter of "orbit". So if D cannot diminish, T must INCREASE.
What this means is that a perceived time T is actually LONGER at that distant place than we had known.
So we need TIME DILATION to deal with breakdown of spin-orbit duality at relativistic speeds.
Fortunately, linear particle-accelerators have successfully slowed down time until mesons that lived for just a microsecond could be studied for SECONDS.
So Einstein's time-dilation has been PROVEN.
The conundrum of spin-orbit duality breakdown has delivered a similar result. Einstein has been vindicated again.
Charles Douglas Wehner
Charles Douglas Wehner was born in 1944. He was a technical author, a design engineer and the manager of a photoelectrics manufacturing company.