Shedding Light on Cheaper Solar Energy

Written by Brenda Townsend Hall

Continued from page 1

PV can helprepparttar environment by offsettingrepparttar 110127 need to rely on electricity generated fromrepparttar 110128 burning of fossil fuels. Two distinct systems now enteringrepparttar 110129 PV market are based onrepparttar 110130 use of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium di-selenide (CIGS) materials in solar cells. The team at Sheffield Hallam University has increased our understanding of PV by showing how solar cells based on CdTe and CIGS structures work. Lack of knowledge in this area, combined with cost, has hinderedrepparttar 110131 widespread take-up ofrepparttar 110132 technology. Nowrepparttar 110133 team has opened uprepparttar 110134 prospect of new solar cells being developed commercially with higher conversion efficiencies than those currently available.

Dr I. M. Dharmadasa, who ledrepparttar 110135 research team says: 'We've already applied for two patents and are preparingrepparttar 110136 final draft ofrepparttar 110137 third patent in connection with our work, but there's a lot more science to be explored that could increase conversion efficiencies to over 20% inrepparttar 110138 near future'.

The research initiative, Low-cost, High-efficiency Thin-film Solar Cells with Electrodeposited Semiconductors, has received initial total Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council funding of 104,632 and follow-up Sheffield Hallam University funding of 140,000. EPSRC isrepparttar 110139 UK's main agency for funding research in engineering andrepparttar 110140 physical sciences and invests more than 400 million a year in research and postgraduate training to helprepparttar 110141 nation handlerepparttar 110142 next generation of technological change.

With affordable energy provision remaining one ofrepparttar 110143 world's most urgent needs,repparttar 110144 advances being made in this area offer real hope for a future in which energy supplies are more widely available withoutrepparttar 110145 drawback of environmental damage.

For more information, contact: Dr I M Dharmadasa, School of Science & Mathematics, Sheffield Hallam University, Tel: 0114 225 4067, E-mail:; website: eaching/as1/SCResearch.html EPSRC: Jane Reck, EPSRC Press Officer, Tel: 01793 444312, E-mail:

The author is a British writer resident in France. She specializes in development and environment issues and writes about the EU. Find out more at

Evolution of matter

Written by Vadim Smolyanov and Valentina Smolyanova

Continued from page 1

Chapter II. Evolution of alive matter

The following significant period of evolution (about 3-4 billion years ago) was occurrence of alive matter which incorporates variety of a lifeless matter. Atrepparttar first sight, an organism and mentality of animals continued to evolve by means of lifeless matter principles from simple to complex with inherent in all alive aspiration to reproduction and self-preservation. Taxis (knacks of spatial orientation aside favorable or from adverse conditions of environment, for example, turn of plants according to daily movement ofrepparttar 110126 sun or change of elementary organisms movement depending on a chemical compound of environment) of monocelled developed in conditional and unconditioned reflexes (response of an organism to irritation) of multicellular, reflexes ofrepparttar 110127 elementary were transformed to complex instincts (the genetic incorporated programme of actions is started at concrete external conditions) of insects. And, at last, atrepparttar 110128 supreme animals we notice abilities to training andrepparttar 110129 decision of simple tasks, for example use of boxes byrepparttar 110130 monkey for bananas gotten. The basic direction of mentality evolution and of organism evolution is considered increase of ability to fast adaptation at fast environment changes. Because of it is considered mammals are more advanced than, for example, insects. Id like to not agree with this thesis. In a counterbalance of mammal ability to training and abilities of separate bodies to change ofrepparttar 110131 functions without genetic changes at insects is an opportunity under adverse conditions to be long time in an embryon or to be exposed to a genetic mutation due to fast alternation of generations. We can mark from it that all animals and all flora is perfect essences and evolution completeness organisms. We can observe completeness in monocelled colonies, in behaviour of plenty bees or supreme animals. The biosphere of our planet during evolution has gotten a homeostasis (the medical term designating balanced harmony of an organism). We shall designate two principles of biosphere homeostasis. The first principle is a principle of "narrow specialisation". Almost all kinds of an animal and flora specialise on rather narrow segment of food or inhabitancy, for example, being divided on herbivores and carnivorous. Withrepparttar 110132 help of it steadily-renewable ecological circuits are built. The second principle is "return proportionality between adaptability and ability to breeding". This principle does not allow to breed, for example, to large predators and to destroy all of herbivores. There is one more principle - "the god does not give horns forrepparttar 110133 butting cow". The nature does not give superadvantage in bodies (powerful canines, claws or horns) and abilities (speed of movement, etc.). That can break a homeostasis (this principle can be related torepparttar 110134 first because additional abilities expand "specialisation"). The evolution shaped these principles during billions years. So biosphere as against a lifeless matter includesrepparttar 110135 variety and forms unity through a homeostasis. The alive matter shows integrity atrepparttar 110136 top level uniting variety ofrepparttar 110137 bottom level of system. Or otherwiserepparttar 110138 aspiration to variety atrepparttar 110139 bottom level is appeared in unity atrepparttar 110140 top level.

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It is the part of article. The article contains the concept of person development on the basis of traditional religions and modern achievements in the world of science.

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