Sex or Gender - Part I

Written by Sam Vaknin

Continued from page 1

Freud, Kraft-Ebbing, and Fliess suggested that we are all bisexual to a certain degree. As early as 1910, Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld argued, in Berlin, that absolute genders are "abstractions, invented extremes". The consensus today is that one's sexuality is, mostly, a psychological construct which reflects gender role orientation.

Joanne Meyerowitz, a professor of history at Indiana University andrepparttar editor of The Journal of American History observes, in her recently published tome, "How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality inrepparttar 126208 United States", thatrepparttar 126209 very meaning of masculinity and femininity is in constant flux.

Transgender activists, says Meyerowitz, insist that gender and sexuality represent "distinct analytical categories". The New York Times wrote in its review ofrepparttar 126210 book: "Some male-to-female transsexuals have sex with men and call themselves homosexuals. Some female-to-male transsexuals have sex with women and call themselves lesbians. Some transsexuals call themselves asexual."

So, it is all inrepparttar 126211 mind, you see.

This would be taking it too far. A large body of scientific evidence points torepparttar 126212 genetic and biological underpinnings of sexual behavior and preferences.

The German science magazine, "Geo", reported recently thatrepparttar 126213 males ofrepparttar 126214 fruit fly "drosophila melanogaster" switched from heterosexuality to homosexuality asrepparttar 126215 temperature inrepparttar 126216 lab was increased from 19 to 30 degrees Celsius. They reverted to chasing females as it was lowered.

The brain structures of homosexual sheep are different to those of straight sheep, a study conducted recently byrepparttar 126217 Oregon Health & Science University andrepparttar 126218 U.S. Department of Agriculture Sheep Experiment Station in Dubois, Idaho, revealed. Similar differences were found between gay men and straight ones in 1995 in Holland and elsewhere. The preoptic area ofrepparttar 126219 hypothalamus was larger in heterosexual men than in both homosexual men and straight women.

According an article, titled "When Sexual Development Goes Awry", by Suzanne Miller, published inrepparttar 126220 September 2000 issue ofrepparttar 126221 "World and I", various medical conditions give rise to sexual ambiguity. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), involving excessive androgen production byrepparttar 126222 adrenal cortex, results in mixed genitalia. A person withrepparttar 126223 complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) has a vagina, external female genitalia and functioning, androgen-producing, testes - but no uterus or fallopian tubes.

People withrepparttar 126224 rare 5-alpha reductase deficiency syndrome are born with ambiguous genitalia. They appear at first to be girls. At puberty, such a person develops testicles and his clitoris swells and becomes a penis. Hermaphrodites possess both ovaries and testicles (both, in most cases, rather undeveloped). Sometimesrepparttar 126225 ovaries and testicles are combined into a chimera called ovotestis.

Most of these individuals haverepparttar 126226 chromosomal composition of a woman together with traces ofrepparttar 126227 Y, male, chromosome. All hermaphrodites have a sizable penis, though rarely generate sperm. Some hermaphrodites develop breasts during puberty and menstruate. Very few even get pregnant and give birth.

Anne Fausto-Sterling, a developmental geneticist, professor of medical science at Brown University, and author of "Sexingrepparttar 126228 Body", postulated, in 1993, a continuum of 5 sexes to supplantrepparttar 126229 current dimorphism: males, merms (male pseudohermaphrodites), herms (true hermaphrodites), ferms (female pseudohermaphrodites), and females.

Intersexuality (hermpahroditism) is a natural human state. We are all conceived withrepparttar 126230 potential to develop into either sex. The embryonic developmental default is female. A series of triggers duringrepparttar 126231 first weeks of pregnancy placesrepparttar 126232 fetus onrepparttar 126233 path to maleness.

In rare cases, some women have a male's genetic makeup (XY chromosomes) and vice versa. But, inrepparttar 126234 vast majority of cases, one ofrepparttar 126235 sexes is clearly selected. Relics ofrepparttar 126236 stifled sex remain, though. Women haverepparttar 126237 clitoris as a kind of symbolic penis. Men have breasts (mammary glands) and nipples.

Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at

How is Coaching Different from Therapy?

Written by Susan Dunn, MA Clinical Psychology, The EQ Coach

Continued from page 1

Friends are not trained to be objective, andrepparttar closer they are to you,repparttar 126207 less likely they’ll be objective. Everyone involved with you emotionally has a vested interest in what you do. They also, I’m sure you’ve found, do not haverepparttar 126208 time.

So for those of us who wanted more out of our lives or particularly out of ourselves, who wanted personal and professional development not inrepparttar 126209 pop-psych short-term-goal way, but as a lifelong proposition, where was there to go?

Reading self-help books gives theory for a mass market, but where could you get a personal and individualized program? It was time for something new forrepparttar 126210 millennium – coaching!

About 8 years ago, I was burning out of my then career field, and looking for something I didn’t even knowrepparttar 126211 name for. I went to a therapist who said I was depressed. Damn right I was. I said I needed to find a new career that was meaningful, and she said she “didn’t do that,” and didn’t know anyone who did, but we could talk. She asked me about my father, a lawyer, and if I was ‘supposed to have beenrepparttar 126212 lawyer.’ There were no female lawyers in 1966 when I graduated from college, my father is long dead, and I was beginning to feel I was and nobody had told me. What I was looking for was what coaching is all about—finding your passion (or reclaiming it) and going forward.


Not surprisingly, since it evolved to fill a need, coaching is very user-friendly, mostly done by telephone, from wherever you and/or your coach happen to be. It uses your time efficiently. No wait, no drive time, no dress code, no need to cancel because you’re on vacation. It’s stream-lined, cyber, results-oriented, and becoming more affordable allrepparttar 126213 time as it becomes more competitive.


Well, some are therapists, but they come from all walks of life. There are credentialing schools (I direct one, EQ Alive!), butrepparttar 126214 “requirements” forrepparttar 126215 field are established byrepparttar 126216 individual consumer. As Thomas Leonard,repparttar 126217 founder of Coaching said, “Check your credentials atrepparttar 126218 door and leave your Boy Scout badges at home.” He himself was an accountant who had a knack for helping people withrepparttar 126219 more important things in their lives.


Coaches help people, and inrepparttar 126220 most amazing ways. Soon I think there will be a coach for everything, and I think that’s wonderful. Now there’s a Potty Training Coach. If you’re laughing, you haven’t been there, as I was – thousands of miles from any family member stumbling around with my friends,repparttar 126221 blind leadingrepparttar 126222 blind, and confused byrepparttar 126223 conflicting advice I was hearing and reading, and a pediatrician who said, “You’ll know when he’s ready.” Not this first-time mother!

There are coaches for ADHD (the Canadian Medical Association has recommended coaching as part of their multi-modality treatment plan), Depression, Divorce, Elder Care, Communication, Leadership, Conflict Resolution, Relationships, Intuition, Introverts, eZines, Marketing, Real Estate, Retirement, Breast Cancer Survival, Emotional Intelligence, Fathering, Public Speaking, Career, and Writing. If you can’t find one for what you want, visit Premier Coach Referral™- . We’ll find one for you.

For those who haverepparttar 126224 income to invest in personal and professional growth and are used to paying for professional services, coaching makes sense. It’s definitely an idea whose time has come.

©Susan Dunn, MA, Clinical Psychology, The EQ Coach™, . Offering individual coaching, coach training and certification, business solutions, coach products for licensing to jumpstart your practice, distance learning, The EQ Learning Lab™, the EQ eBook Library, , and Emotional Intelligence resources. for FREE eZine.

    <Back to Page 1 © 2005
Terms of Use