Seecrets on Security: A gentle introduction to cryptography

Written by Stan Seecrets

Continued from page 1

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was adopted as a standard byrepparttar National Institute of Standards & Technology, U.S.A. (NIST) in 2001. AES is based onrepparttar 136799 Rijndael (pronounced "rhine-doll") cipher developed by two Belgian cryptographers, Victor Rijmen and Joan Daemen. Typically, AES uses 256-bits (equivalent to 78 digits) for its keys. The key is any number between 0 and 15792089237316195423570985008687907853269984665640564039457584007913129639935. This number isrepparttar 136800 same asrepparttar 136801 estimated number of atoms inrepparttar 136802 universe.

The National Security Agency (NSA) approved AES in June 2003 for protecting top-level secrets within US governmental agencies (of course subject to their approval ofrepparttar 136803 implementation methods). They are reputedlyrepparttar 136804 ones that can eavesdrop on all telephone conversations going on aroundrepparttar 136805 world. Besides, this organization is recognized to berepparttar 136806 largest employer of mathematicians inrepparttar 136807 world and may berepparttar 136808 largest buyer of computer hardware inrepparttar 136809 world. The NSA probably have cryptographic expertise many years ahead ofrepparttar 136810 public and can undoubtedly break many ofrepparttar 136811 systems used in practice. For reasons of national security, almost all information aboutrepparttar 136812 NSA - even its budget is classified.

A brute force attack is basically to use all possible combinations in trying to decrypt encrypted materials.

A dictionary attack usually refers to text-based passphrases (passwords) by using commonly used passwords. The total number of commonly used passwords is surprisingly small, in computer terms.

An adversary is somebody, be it an individual, company, business rival, enemy, traitor or governmental agency who would probably gain by having access to your encrypted secrets. A determined adversary is one with more "brains" and resources. The best form of security is to have zero adversary (practically impossible to achieve),repparttar 136813 next best is to have zero determined adversary!

A keylogger is a software program or hardware to capture all keystrokes typed. This is by farrepparttar 136814 most effective mechanism to crack password-based implementations of cryptosystems. Software keylogger programs are more common because they are small, work in stealth-mode and easily downloaded fromrepparttar 136815 internet. Advanced keyloggers haverepparttar 136816 ability to run silently on a target machine and remotely deliverrepparttar 136817 recorded information torepparttar 136818 user who introduced this covert monitoring session. Keystroke monitoring, as everything else created by man, can either be useful or harmful, depending onrepparttar 136819 monitor’s intents. All confidential information which passes throughrepparttar 136820 keyboard and reachesrepparttar 136821 computer includes all passwords, usernames, identification data, credit card details, and confidential documents (as they are typed).

Forrepparttar 136822 last definition, we will use an example. Let's say you have your house equipped withrepparttar 136823 latest locks, no master keys and no locksmith can tamper with them. Your doors and windows are unbreakable. How then does an adversary get into your house without using a bulldozer to break your front door? Answer:repparttar 136824 roof - by removing a few tiles,repparttar 136825 adversary can get into your house. This is an exploit (weakness point). Every system, organization, individual has exploits.

See, it is not that difficult after all. If you can understandrepparttar 136826 material presented in this article, congratulations - you have become crypto-literate (less than 1% of all current computer users). If you do not believe me, try using some of this newfound knowledge on your banker friends or computer professionals.

Stan Seecrets’ Postulate: “The sum total of all human knowledge is a prime number.”

Corollary: “The sum total of all human wisdom is not a prime number.”

This article may be freely reprinted providing it is published in its entirety, includingrepparttar 136827 author’s bio and link torepparttar 136828 URL below.

The author, Stan Seecrets, is a veteran software developer with 25+ years experience at ( which specializes in protecting digital assets. This site provides quality software priced like books, free-reprint articles on stock charts and computer security, free downloads and numerous free stuff. © Copyright 2005, Stan Seecrets. All rights reserved.

Why Mad Cap's Is Madonna's Favorite Puzzle

Written by David D. Deprice

Continued from page 1



"For a relatively simple puzzle game, Mad Caps boasts both excellent graphics and audio. Folks looking for a new way to strainrepparttar brain should certainly look into this game." Download.Com Review

David D. Deprice teaches a dirty little trick to get 10-30% off any downloadable games at

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