Seecrets On Security: A Gentle Introduction To Cryptography

Written by Stan Seecrets

Continued from page 1

To digress a bit, have you ever wondered why you had to study prime numbers in school? I am sure most mathematics teachers do not know this answer. Answer: A subbranch called public-key cryptography which uses prime numbers especially for encrypting e-mails. Over there, they are talking of even bigger numbers like 2048, 4096, 8192 bits.)

When we want to encrypt something, we need to use a cipher. A cipher is just an algorithm similar to a recipe for baking a cake. It has precise, unambiguous steps. To carry outrepparttar encryption process, you need a key (some called it passphrase). A good practice in cryptography needsrepparttar 139957 key used by a cipher must be of high entropy to be effective.

Data Encryption Standard (DES), introduced as a standard inrepparttar 139958 late 1970's, wasrepparttar 139959 most commonly used cipher inrepparttar 139960 1980's and early 1990's. It uses a 56-bit key. It was broken inrepparttar 139961 late 1990ís with specialized computers costing about US$250,000 in 56 hours. With today's (2005) hardware, it is possible to crack within a day.

Subsequently, Triple-DES superseded DES asrepparttar 139962 logical way to preserve compatibility with earlier investments by big corporations (mainly banks). It uses two 56-bit key using three steps:-

1. Encrypt with Key 1. 2. Decrypt with Key 2. 3. Encrypt with Key 1.

The effective key length used is only 112-bits (equivalent to 34 digits). The key is any number between 0 and 5192296858534827628530496329220095. Some modifyrepparttar 139963 last process using Key 3, making it more effective at 168-bit keys.

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was adopted as a standard byrepparttar 139964 National Institute of Standards

The author, Stan Seecrets, is a veteran software developer with 25 years experience at ( which specializes in protecting digital assets. This site provides quality software priced like books, free-reprint articles on stock charts and computer security, free downloads. © Copyright 2005, Stan Seecrets. All rights reserved.

Top 5 Backup Tools You Can Pick Up For Pennies

Written by David D. Deprice

Continued from page 1

4. Backup4all - Low Price Shock

Backup4All performs all four fundamental backup types: full backup, differential backup, incremental backup and mirror backup. Usingrepparttar wizard you can easily set up any backup configuration you wish. You can define powerful file filters and schedule your backups any way you want. Once a backup is performed, you can see what files have been changed sincerepparttar 139848 last backup usingrepparttar 139849 explorer-like tree view or you can readrepparttar 139850 statistics aboutrepparttar 139851 next backup execution. You can userepparttar 139852 context menu fromrepparttar 139853 tree to run standard actions associated withrepparttar 139854 file type.

5. Handy Backup - Underselling Undersellers

Handy Backup is an easy-to-use program designed for an automatic backup of your critical data virtually to any type of storage media including CD-RW devices and remote FTP servers. You can use Handy Backup to make a reserve copy of any valuable data on your system. Special addons are provided to facilitaterepparttar 139855 backup of MS Outlook, system registry and ICQ files. Restoring is as easy as clicking a button, but you can also use a number of advanced options. The program can be also used to synchronize files between two computers on a network.

David D. Deprice sells backup software for pennies on the dollar at

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