Rosetta stone

Written by Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga

Continued from page 1
The representation of a single text ofrepparttar three mentioned script variants enabledrepparttar 109447 French scholar Jean Francois Champollion (1790-1832) in 1822 to basically decipherrepparttar 109448 hieroglyphs. Furthermore, withrepparttar 109449 aid ofrepparttar 109450 Coptic language (language ofrepparttar 109451 Christian descendants ofrepparttar 109452 ancient Egyptians), he succeeded to realizerepparttar 109453 phonetic value ofrepparttar 109454 hieroglyphs. This provedrepparttar 109455 fact that hieroglyphs do not have only symbolic meaning, but that they also served as a "spoken language". this article is courtesy of Home of educational kits and handmade crafts. Another British physicist Thomas Young worked onrepparttar 109456 translation ofrepparttar 109457 stone withrepparttar 109458 French Egyptologist Jean François Champollion. Thomas Young,repparttar 109459 English Physicist, wasrepparttar 109460 first to prove thatrepparttar 109461 elongated ovals or cartouches inrepparttar 109462 hieroglyphic section ofrepparttar 109463 stone contained a royal name written phonetically, in this case that of Ptolemy. Jean François Champollion went on to correct and enlarge Young's list of phonetic hieroglyphs and layrepparttar 109464 foundations of our knowledge ofrepparttar 109465 ancient Egyptian language in a paper which was read torepparttar 109466 Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in Paris in 1822. It was this discovery -- thatrepparttar 109467 Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system used a combination of ideograms, phonetic signs, and determinatives -- that providedrepparttar 109468 breakthrough inrepparttar 109469 translation of hieroglyphic writing. And this ability to readrepparttar 109470 ancient hieroglyphs in turn openedrepparttar 109471 door torepparttar 109472 history of ancient Egypt and gave birth torepparttar 109473 new discipline of Egyptology.

Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga, egyptian radiologist, interested in egyptology.


Written by Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga

Continued from page 1


Hieratic is an adaptation ofrepparttar hieroglyphic script,repparttar 109446 signs being simplified to make their writing quicker. Hieratic wasrepparttar 109447 administrative and business script throughout most of its history, and recorded documents of a literary, scientific and religious nature. It was most often used on papyrus rolls or sheets, or on bits of pottery or stone. Hieroglyphs were written with a reed brush and ink on papyrus, leather or wood, and on those surfaces it was harder to attainrepparttar 109448 crisp quality and detail ofrepparttar 109449 signs as carved on stone. So cursive hieroglyphic was merely a simpler form of each hieroglyphic sign. A hieratic sign was not always as clear a counterpart to its hieroglyphic sign as was cursive hieroglyphic. Hieratic should not be confused with cursive hieroglyphic script, thoughrepparttar 109450 two resemble each other. Cursive hieroglyphic script is usually written from right to left in columns, though just as with hieroglyphic it could vary, and is found almost exclusively in religious texts such asrepparttar 109451 Book ofrepparttar 109452 Dead. Hieratic could be written in columns or horizontal lines, but it always read from right to left. It also sometimes contained punctuation inrepparttar 109453 form of a small dot to separate units of thought.

Demotic The word "Demotic" comes once again from Greek, meaning "popular script." Byrepparttar 109454 Hellenistic period ofrepparttar 109455 Ptolemies, demotic wasrepparttar 109456 only native script in general daily use. It is a very cursive script, having been derived directly from hieratic, making it difficult to read and almost impossible to transcribe into any hieroglyphic counterpart. Demotic texts were generally administrative, legal and commercial, though there are a few literary compositions as well as scientific and religious texts. The Rosetta Stone contains a section inscribed in demotic along with hieroglyphic and Greek.


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