Rosetta stoneWritten by Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga
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The representation of a single text of three mentioned script variants enabled French scholar Jean Francois Champollion (1790-1832) in 1822 to basically decipher hieroglyphs. Furthermore, with aid of Coptic language (language of Christian descendants of ancient Egyptians), he succeeded to realize phonetic value of hieroglyphs. This proved fact that hieroglyphs do not have only symbolic meaning, but that they also served as a "spoken language". this article is courtesy of www.kingtutshop.com Home of educational kits and handmade crafts. Another British physicist Thomas Young worked on translation of stone with French Egyptologist Jean François Champollion. Thomas Young, English Physicist, was first to prove that elongated ovals or cartouches in hieroglyphic section of stone contained a royal name written phonetically, in this case that of Ptolemy. Jean François Champollion went on to correct and enlarge Young's list of phonetic hieroglyphs and lay foundations of our knowledge of ancient Egyptian language in a paper which was read to Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in Paris in 1822. It was this discovery -- that Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system used a combination of ideograms, phonetic signs, and determinatives -- that provided breakthrough in translation of hieroglyphic writing. And this ability to read ancient hieroglyphs in turn opened door to history of ancient Egypt and gave birth to new discipline of Egyptology.
Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga, egyptian radiologist, interested in egyptology.
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN WRITING.Written by Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga
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Hieratic is an adaptation of hieroglyphic script, signs being simplified to make their writing quicker. Hieratic was administrative and business script throughout most of its history, and recorded documents of a literary, scientific and religious nature. It was most often used on papyrus rolls or sheets, or on bits of pottery or stone. Hieroglyphs were written with a reed brush and ink on papyrus, leather or wood, and on those surfaces it was harder to attain crisp quality and detail of signs as carved on stone. So cursive hieroglyphic was merely a simpler form of each hieroglyphic sign. A hieratic sign was not always as clear a counterpart to its hieroglyphic sign as was cursive hieroglyphic. Hieratic should not be confused with cursive hieroglyphic script, though two resemble each other. Cursive hieroglyphic script is usually written from right to left in columns, though just as with hieroglyphic it could vary, and is found almost exclusively in religious texts such as Book of Dead. Hieratic could be written in columns or horizontal lines, but it always read from right to left. It also sometimes contained punctuation in form of a small dot to separate units of thought.
Demotic The word "Demotic" comes once again from Greek, meaning "popular script." By Hellenistic period of Ptolemies, demotic was only native script in general daily use. It is a very cursive script, having been derived directly from hieratic, making it difficult to read and almost impossible to transcribe into any hieroglyphic counterpart. Demotic texts were generally administrative, legal and commercial, though there are a few literary compositions as well as scientific and religious texts. The Rosetta Stone contains a section inscribed in demotic along with hieroglyphic and Greek.
DR. SHERIN ELKHAWAGA, FEMALE, 31 YEARS OLDRADIOLOGIST.BEHOLDS MASTERS DEGREEIN RADIOLOGY. INTERESTED IN EGYPTOLOGY.