Repairing Your Own Machine Components

Written by Thomas Yoon

Continued from page 1

Metal is cut either by movingrepparttar work piece like inrepparttar 116105 lathe or by movingrepparttar 116106 tool like inrepparttar 116107 shaping machine, drilling or milling machine. Clearance angles must be provided to preventrepparttar 116108 tool surface belowrepparttar 116109 cutting edge from rubbing againstrepparttar 116110 work piece. Rake angles are often provided on cutting tools to cause a wedging action inrepparttar 116111 formation of chips and to reduce friction and heat.

Tool Materials 

In order to remove chips from a work piece, a cutting tool must be harder thanrepparttar 116112 work piece and must maintain a cutting edge atrepparttar 116113 temperature produced byrepparttar 116114 friction ofrepparttar 116115 cutting action.

Carbon Steel 

Carbon steel tools even though comparatively inexpensive tend to lose cutting ability at temperatures around 400 degree F (205 degree C).

High-Speed Steel 

High-speed steel, containing 18 percent tungsten, 4 percent chromium, 1 percent vanadium, and only 0.5 to 0.8 percent carbon, permitsrepparttar 116116 operation of tools twice or three timesrepparttar 116117 speeds allowable with carbon steel

Cast Alloys 

Cast-alloy cutting-tool materials containing cobalt, chromium, and tungsten are effective in cutting cast iron and retaining their cutting ability even when red hot.

Cemented Tungsten Carbide 

The hardness of Tungsten Carbide approaches that of a diamond. Tungsten carbide tools can be operated at cutting speeds many times higher than those used with high-speed steel.


Ceramic, or oxide, tool tips consist primarily of fine aluminum oxide grains, which are bonded together. These are very hard.

Cutting fluids 

An overheated tool can become blunt and soft very fast. Therefore very often, cooling fluids coolsrepparttar 116118 cutting points ofrepparttar 116119 tool. This serves to lubricate and cool.

Water is an excellent cooling medium, but it corrodes ferrous materials. Sulfurized mineral oil is one ofrepparttar 116120 most popular coolants as it can both cool as well as lubricate. The sulfur prevents chips fromrepparttar 116121 work from melting on torepparttar 116122 tip ofrepparttar 116123 tool.

"As Easy As Blockbuster Guarantee" Findrepparttar 116124 Best Tools for Garden, Garage, Industry and Home. Widest Range of Quality Tools. Best Tools

Many years of working experience in Marine, Facilities, Construction has given the author material for writing e-books and articles related to engineering, and management. Subscribe to facworld ezine More information at Marine and M & E

Photography Contest - a fun and rewarding experience

Written by Colin Hartness

Continued from page 1

Tips for Better Photos

You may be amateur but if you are entering a photography contest, you are competing withrepparttar best ofrepparttar 116104 best. You are going to need your photos to be excellent if you expect to win. There are different things that make up a good photo. If your photography contest is based on a topic, then that topic is going to be counted as part ofrepparttar 116105 score. You will want to be original and if possible, catch a scene that has not been done before. You really want to impressrepparttar 116106 judges with something you do not normally see.

Next to consider, are your technical aspects of your photograph. You are going to want to have excellent composition, lighting, focus, contrast, exposure, perspective and more. There are many factors involved in takingrepparttar 116107 picture that will winrepparttar 116108 photography contest. You may not win every time but you should learn something about photography and how to make yours better each time you enter.

Looking for information about Photography? Go to: 'ASA Photography' is published by Colin Hartness - An excellent resource for Photography! Check out more photography articles at:

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