Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesisWritten by Paras Chopra
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4. Protein Printer This is only hardware part of whole procedure. It will produce desired real proteins from amino acid sequence received from software. It may be able to work in any of two ways:
* Artificial Ribosome: It will mimic functionality of cell to produce proteins. We will generate an mRNA using some assembling mechanism. Then, our artificially designed Ribosome will translate it into a protein which we can use. * Artificial Recombinant DNA: We will assemble a fragment of DNA corresponding to desired amino acid sequence. Then by using some automated means we will introduce DNA into a colony of E. coli (or some other organism)/ Then E. coli will produce these synthetic proteins in same way they produce natural proteins in recombinant DNA technology.
5. Conclusion Using this system, we only need to define: "What do we want protein to do?". All other procedure is automatic. We just need to tell if we want a protein to degrade plastic, convert CO2 into diamond and oxygen, and catalyze/initiate cold fusion, etc. & we will have ready made proteins. It can also help in finding proteins which will help us attain Immortality.
The potential is immense. The only need is its correct use.
Paras Chopra was born in Patiala, Punjab, India on 3rd June 1987. His interests lie in subjects ranging from Nanotechnology to Biotechnology to Artificial Intelligence. His goal in life is to achieve immortality.
Visit him at: www.paraschopra.com
Memory Research Misses The ObviousWritten by Abraham Thomas
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Global applications. Combinatorial coding could provide immense intelligence to nervous system. The wonder of nature was enormous scale, scope and sensitivity of its reporting systems. The mind had this vast army of scouts, reporting back on millions of tiny sensations - heat of sun and hardness of rock. Pain on skin too was a report. When their impulses were received in cortex, you felt pain. In earlier example, with combinatorial coding, a cell could fire for ABD and be inhibited for ABP. If pain reporting nerve cell recognized inputs from its neighbours, it could also respond to neighbouring pain and fire to report sympathetic pain. It could respond to touch and inhibit its own sympathetic pain message. The cell could respond to context. Pattern recognition. Nerve cells didn't receive just a few inputs. They received thousands. So, pain could be sensitive to context. Inherited memories in combinatorial codes could enable system to recognize and respond to patterns in context. Combinatorial coding could explain mind as a pattern recognition engine. But science worked on assumption that neurons in brain did not recognize, but did computations. The search for a mathematical formula which could simulate computations of mind goes on. But, if you assumed pattern recognition, you just stepped out of mathematical maze. Unfortunately, recognition of patterns was too formidable a task for computers. The diagnosis of diseases was a typical pattern recognition problem. The pattern recognition difficulty. The obstacle was that many shared symptoms were presented by different diseases. Pain, or fever were present for many diseases. Each symptom pointed to several diseases. In customary search, first selected disease with first presented symptom could lack second symptom. So back and forth searches followed an exponentially expanding trajectory as database increased in size. That made process absurdly long drawn – theoretically, even years, when searching extensive databases. In light of such an impregnable problem, science did not evaluate pattern recognition as a practical process for nervous system. An instant pattern recognition process. There is an Intuitive Algorithm (IA), which follows a logical process to achieve real time pattern recognition. IA was unique. In a feat never achieved by computers before, IA could almost instantly diagnose diseases. IA used elimination to narrow down possibilities to reach correct answer. In essence, IA did not calculate, but used elimination to recognize patterns. IA acted with speed of a simple recalculation on a spreadsheet, to recognize a disease, identify a case law or diagnose problems of a complex machine. It did this holistically and almost instantly, through simple, logical steps. IA proved that holistic, instant, real time pattern recognition was practical. IA provided a clue to secret of intuition. The website intuition.co.in and book explain IA in detail. Seamless pattern recognition. The mind was a recognition machine, which instantly recognized context of its ever changing environment. The system triggered feelings when particular classes of events were recognized. The process was achieved by inherited nerve cell memories accumulated across millions of years. The memories enabled mind to recognized events. Similar inherited memories in nerve cells enabled mind to trigger feelings, when events were recognized. And further cell memories caused feelings to trigger actions. Actions were sequences of muscle movements. Even drive sequences could be remembered by nerve cells. That was how we were driven. So circuit closed. Half a second for a 100 billion nerve cells to use context to eliminate irrelevance and deliver motor output. The time between shadow and scream. So, from input to output, mind was a seamless pattern recognition machine. Intuition and memory. Walter Freeman famous neurobiologist defined critical difficulty for science in understanding mind. “The cognitive guys think it's just impossible to keep throwing everything you've got into computation every time. But, that is exactly what brain does. Consciousness is about bringing your entire history to bear on your next step, your next breath, your next moment.” The mind was holistic. It evaluated all its knowledge for next activity. However large its database, logic of IA could yield instant pattern recognition. Since that logic was robust and practical, intuition could also be such an instant pattern recognition process. Intuition could then power mind to instantly recognize an infinite variety of objects and events to trigger motor responses. Each living moment, it could evaluate context of a dynamic multi-sensory world and its own vast memories. Those memories could be stored in combinatorial codes of nerve cells.
Abraham Thomas is the author of The Intuitive Algorithm, a book, which suggests that intuition is a pattern recognition algorithm. The ebook version is available at www.intuition.co.in. The book may be purchased only in India. The website, provides a free movie and a walk through to explain the ideas.