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You want to get rid of winter protection that you set up like cones, burlap, and mounded soil. You want to get rid of dead wood first. (That would be black wood that is black inside as well as out). Next, you wan to get rid of thinner wood, which is stems that are thinner than a pencil.
Cut all of branches that cross or overlap one another because these are often diseased or will become so. Keep remaining five healthy branches. These are often dark green. You will want to make your roses fluted or vases shaped, with an open center, and keep them from touching or overlapping each other.
Cut your healthy canes to be about one to four feet long, or whatever size that you prefer. Cut you roses properly so that they stay healthy. Cut so that bud is facing outside of bush and at a 45 degree angle that slopes inward so that you can keep promoting outward growth.
You should use bypass pruners that work like scissors and not anvil types because anvils crush stems and make roses more available to diseases.
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