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On this conception, "physics," which deals with phenomenal appearances, including psychology, is contrasted [p. 62] with theory of causes, "first things," or "metaphysics."
This philosophical conception so dominates Aristotle's mind that he practically abandons, in theory, subjective point of view. In his view of soul, he goes over to a biological conception, which is, however, not that of evolution. Natural species, like types of Plato, are immutable. The soul is "first entelechy" or formal cause of body; in essence it is akin to ether. It embodies also efficient and final causal principles. Man, in masculine gender, alone realises end of nature. Psychology, thus fused with biology, extends to plants and animals and so becomes a comparative science. The plants have nutritive and reproductive souls; they propagate their form. Animals have, besides, sentient and moving soul, which is endowed with impulse, feeling, and faculty of imaging. In man, finally, thinking or rational soul is present. This is implanted in person before birth from without; and at death it goes back to its source, divine reason, where it continues in eternal but impersonal form. It is two-fold in its nature in man, partaking both of divine reason and of sensitive soul; it is both active and passive (nouV poihtikos and nouV paqetikoV).
In theory of relation of these souls to one another, Aristotle advances to a genetic and strictly modern point of view. They are not separate "parts," having different local seats in body, as [p. 63] Plato taught, but functions of one developing principle. The higher is developed from and includes lower.
In all this, it is evident that while objective point of view is maintained, still doctrine is not result of a searching of consciousness; nor does it employ a strictly empirical method. It does not isolate sphere of mind as one of conscious fact, distinct from that of physical. The results are on same level for mind, life, and physics in narrower sense; they are deduced from immanental conception of nature as a whole. So far Aristotle metaphysician.
But Aristotle scientific observer is still to be heard from. It is clear that psychological facts may be observed, just as other facts may be, even in absence of any clear distinction as to presence or absence of consciousness. Aristotle set himself to investigate functions of soul, looking upon it as biological principle of form in nature. In this sense, as using an objective method of observation, and as making important and lasting discoveries, he is properly to be described as pioneer psychologist.” (7)
His insights were boundless and Pseudo-Aristotle or he, himself, also wrote about Carthaginian ban on travel to America. His insight on Carthaginian democratic system with a common consent king is important to getting a glimpse of how much better things were in earlier times before Empire became all rage. Whether he supported stupid ban on educating women or just went along because it was politically incorrect and dangerous to do otherwise is something we may never really know. Aquinas re-worked much of Aristotle into Catholic dogma and many Thomists in that behemoth still hold sway.
Go to World-Mysteries.com if you are interested in books that explain more than the paradigm seeks to let you know. This is an excerpt from one volume of my encyclopedia which can be purchased there.
Author of Diverse Druids Columnist for The ES Press Magazine