Nagging Doubts

Written by Holmes Charnley

Continued from page 1

This whole process relies onrepparttar salinity ofrepparttar 110088 water. As salt water cools, it's density increases, causing this drop torepparttar 110089 floor I just mentioned. What could bugger this up?

Well, naturally, fresh water fromrepparttar 110090 melting ice-sheets, along withrepparttar 110091 huge Siberian rivers, which are flooding more than ever, contributing to this fresh water being thrown intorepparttar 110092 Atlantic.

Put simply, diluted salt water will not sink,repparttar 110093 Gulf Stream would call it a day and it would get bloody cold. No, really cold.

Dr Terry Joyce, of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute believes there is a 50% chance of this happening withinrepparttar 110094 next 100 years. "The likelihood of having an abrupt change is increasing - global warming is moving us closer and closer torepparttar 110095 brink" he warned.

(It was sobering stuff. Again, vitriolic thoughts aboutrepparttar 110096 world's leaders who continue to allow global warming to happen bombarded my brain, asrepparttar 110097 Atlantic continues to be bombarded by this fresh water.)

It's been cold recently, more so sincerepparttar 110098 central heating has decided to pack up andrepparttar 110099 damned landlord has taken aeons to sort it. So, it was a case of watching this programme whilst huddled round my Zippo.

I'm relatively new to this town, so whilst I was onrepparttar 110100 playground today, picking uprepparttar 110101 kids, I got talking to this chap that I have begun to know. Inrepparttar 110102 past, it has merely been a case of exchanging pleasantries. I was telling him aboutrepparttar 110103 central heating having shut down. Turns out, he'd seen Horizon last night as well.

"Knowing my luck" I said, " this forecasted ice age will hit us tonight beforerepparttar 110104 landlord getsrepparttar 110105 boiler sorted."

"Oh no, I think it would take around 10 years to fully hit us. It wouldn't happen overnight."

Is he related torepparttar 110106 postmistress? I'm beginning to get nagging doubts about this town.

Freelance Journalist. 2004 has seen pieces published in The Guardian and pieces also accepted by Jack magazine. More articles available at my site:

Earthquakes and Tsunamis

Written by Sam Vaknin

Continued from page 1

Some earthquakes produce low-pitch sounds and light effects (flashes, streamers, and balls). Water in lakes and reservoirs oscillate causing flooding (a phenomenon called seiche). Seiches were observed in Scotland and Sweden followingrepparttar Lisbon quake of 1755. Similarly,repparttar 110087 Alaskan tremor in 1964 produced seiches in Texas and throughoutrepparttar 110088 southwestern parts ofrepparttar 110089 United States.

Measuringrepparttar 110090 magnitude of earthquakes is more a fine art than an exact science.

Charles Richter developed his eponymous logarithmic scale in 1935. It measuresrepparttar 110091 amplitude (the height) of seismic surface waves. Each unit represents a tenfold increase inrepparttar 110092 energy released byrepparttar 110093 tremor. An earthquake of magnitude 9 is, therefore, 1000 stronger than a tremor of magnitude 6. The Kobe earthquake measured 6.8 onrepparttar 110094 Richter scale,repparttar 110095 San Francisco tremor of 1906 was 8.3 (as wasrepparttar 110096 earthquake inrepparttar 110097 Mississippi Valley in 1811), and bothrepparttar 110098 Alaskan quake of 1964 andrepparttar 110099 South Asian underwater temblor of 2004 were around 9 (9.2 in Alaska to be precise)

The Richter scale is used mainly byrepparttar 110100 media. Professional seismologists userepparttar 110101 Moment Magnitude Scale (MMS) which takes into accountrepparttar 110102 properties ofrepparttar 110103 area andrepparttar 110104 amount of slippage (displacement). It capturesrepparttar 110105 total energy ofrepparttar 110106 tremor. The Kobe earthquake measured 7 onrepparttar 110107 MMS,repparttar 110108 San Francisco tremor of 1906 was 7.6, andrepparttar 110109 Alaskan quake of 1964 was 9.

Then there isrepparttar 110110 still-used 12-grade Modified Mercalli Scale (adapted in 1931 by American seismologists H. O. Wood and Frank Neumann fromrepparttar 110111 original Mercalli scale, proposed in 1902 Italian seismologist Giuseppe Mercalli). It measuresrepparttar 110112 impact that an earthquake has onrepparttar 110113 natural and man-made environment to gauge its magnitude. The Europeans have a similar 12-grade scale, called MSK.

Seaquakes are earthquakes that start on land and then travel intorepparttar 110114 sea atrepparttar 110115 speed of sound (about 1.5 kilometers per second).

Quakes occur even onrepparttar 110116 moon which has no plates, volcanic activities, or ocean trenches. The five seismograph stations ofrepparttar 110117 Passive Seismic Experiment set up between 1969 and 1977 as part ofrepparttar 110118 United States Apollo Program detected up to 3,000 moonquakes every year. Mars, onrepparttar 110119 other hand, seems not to have quakes at all!

Some notable earthquakes in history:

Lisbon, November 1, 1755, 09:40 AM (All Saints Day)

Property damage: 12,000 houses, fire raged for 6 days

Casualties: 60,000 dead

Felt as far as: Algiers (1100 kilometers torepparttar 110120 east)

Side effects: tsunami 20 meters high (at Cadiz) to 6 meters high (at Lisbon). Traveled to Martinique (6100 kilometers) in 10 hours and rose to 4 meters when it struckrepparttar 110121 shore.

New Madrid, Missouri, USA - December 16, 1811, January 23 and February 7, 1812

Felt as far as: Louisville, Kentucky (300 kilometers away); Cincinnati, Ohio (600 km. away); Canada; Gulf Coast.

Side effects: 1874 aftershocks; The tremor affected 100,000 square kilometers. An area of 240X60 kilometers sank by 1-3 meters and was flooded as a nearby river rushed in.

San Francisco, April 18, 1906, 05:12 AM

Property damage: Fire destroyedrepparttar 110122 business district of San Francisco. Cities alongrepparttar 110123 fault (e.g., San Jose, Salinas, and Santa Rosa) obliterated.

Casualties: 700 dead

Felt as far as: Los Angeles inrepparttar 110124 south and Coos Bay, Oregon, torepparttar 110125 north

Side effects: At least a 430 kilometers fault slippage (break).

Tokyo–Yokohama, September 1, 1923

Property damage: Fifty four percent of brick buildings and one tenth of other, reinforced, structures collapsed. Hundreds of thousands of houses crumbled or burned.

Casualties: 140,000 dead

Felt as far as: Los Angeles inrepparttar 110126 south and Coos Bay, Oregon, torepparttar 110127 north

Side effects: Twelve-meter high tsunami crashed against Atami onrepparttar 110128 Sagami Gulf, destroyed 155 houses and killed 60 people.

Chile, 1960

Property damage: Pegged at millions of US dollars.

Casualties: 5700 killed and 3000 injured.

Felt as far as: Los Angeles inrepparttar 110129 south and Coos Bay, Oregon, torepparttar 110130 north

Side effects: Seismic sea waves (tsunamis) struck Hawaii, Japan, andrepparttar 110131 Pacific coast ofrepparttar 110132 United States.

Alaska, March 27, 1964

Casualties: 131 dead

Side effects: Felt over an area of 1,300,000 square kilometers and tilted an area of more than 120,000 square kilometers. Land was thrust up by as much as 25 meters and sank by up to 2.5 meters. Numerous tsunamis affected locales as far as Crescent City, California. The fault extended for 1000 kilometers and there were tens of thousands of aftershocks.

Tang-shan, China, July 28, 1976

Property damage: Entire city razed torepparttar 110133 ground.

Casualties: 240,000 killed and half a million injured.

Mexico, September 19, 1985, 07:18 AM

Property damage: Most buildings in Mexico City - 400 kilometers fromrepparttar 110134 epicenter - damaged extensively.

Casualties: 10,000 killed.

Felt as far as: Los Angeles inrepparttar 110135 south and Coos Bay, Oregon, torepparttar 110136 north

Side effects: Seismic sea waves (tsunamis) struck Hawaii, Japan, andrepparttar 110137 Pacific coast ofrepparttar 110138 United States.

Sam Vaknin ( ) is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He served as a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , and Bellaonline, and as a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent. He is the the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory and Suite101.

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