Mobile Railway Wheels Turning Device

Written by Alexander Avdenja

Continued from page 1

The holder ofrepparttar turning tool is moving torepparttar 133340 wheel surface to be turned andrepparttar 133341 turning process starts.

The surface processed is checked by a locomotive profile gauge.

Locomotive battery can be used asrepparttar 133342 power supply source.

40V voltage is tapped offrepparttar 133343 battery by a portable copper cable of 40 mm???2 and applied to rheostat terminals.

During a wagon wheel turningrepparttar 133344 wheelset preliminary should be lifted by 30 t lifting capacity hydraulic jack and leveled against railhead by 15-25 mm.

Support is placed underrepparttar 133345 wheel being turned.

An actuator is placed underrepparttar 133346 opposite wheel ofrepparttar 133347 wheelset.

One jack is placed onrepparttar 133348 surface ofrepparttar 133349 support body, another - atrepparttar 133350 level ofrepparttar 133351 surface ofrepparttar 133352 actuator body.

The jacks arerepparttar 133353 basic fixing link betweenrepparttar 133354 support and actuator roller againstrepparttar 133355 wheelset turned.

The device is connected to 220 V AC, 40 V and 100 A power supply.

Withrepparttar 133356 aid ofrepparttar 133357 rheostatrepparttar 133358 actuator roller rotation rate is set to minimal - 100 r/min.

According torepparttar 133359 principle of friction gearrepparttar 133360 actuator roller is brought to contact withrepparttar 133361 wheel tread,repparttar 133362 rheostat increasesrepparttar 133363 actuator roller rotation rate andrepparttar 133364 rotation rate ofrepparttar 133365 wheel turned is brought up to 200-240 r/min.

The cutter holder withrepparttar 133366 cup-tip tool is moving torepparttar 133367 surface turned andrepparttar 133368 turning process starts.

The processed surface is checked byrepparttar 133369 wagon profile gauge.

The further turning process is identical torepparttar 133370 previous one.

Video and photos of Mobile Railway Wheels Turning Device you can see at

Alexander is the owner of patents for Mobile Railway Wheels Turning Device and Universal Heating System. For more info visit website at

VoIP 101: Voice over IP for Beginners

Written by Rich McIver

Continued from page 1

There are also some nifty benefits to having your calls transmitted overrepparttar Internet. For example, some VoIP service providers allow you to check your voicemail via your e-mail, while others allow you to attach voice messages to your e-mails. How VoIP Works

The current phone system relies on a reliable but largely inefficient method for connecting calls known as circuit switching. This technique, which has been used for over 100 years, means that when a call is made between two people a connection is maintained in both directions between callers forrepparttar 133339 duration ofrepparttar 133340 call. This dual directional characteristic givesrepparttar 133341 systemrepparttar 133342 name circuit.

If, for example, you made a 30-minute callrepparttar 133343 circuit would be continuously open, and thus used, betweenrepparttar 133344 two phones. Up until about 1960, this meant that every call had to have an actual dedicated wire connectingrepparttar 133345 two phones. Thus a long distance call cost so much, because you were paying for pieces of copper wire to be connected allrepparttar 133346 way from your phone torepparttar 133347 destination phone, and for that connection to remain constant throughoutrepparttar 133348 call. Today, however, your analog call is converted after leaving your house to a digital signal, where your call can be combined with many others on a single fiber optic cable. While this system is certainly an improvement overrepparttar 133349 past copper wire system, it is still quite inefficient. This inefficiency is due in part torepparttar 133350 fact thatrepparttar 133351 telephone line can't distinguish between useful talking and unneeded silences. For example, in a typical conversation while one person is talkingrepparttar 133352 other person is listening. Thusrepparttar 133353 current analog system uses roughly half its space sending useless messages like this silence. But there is also more information, even down to pauses in speech, which under a more efficient system can be effectively cut out rather than wastingrepparttar 133354 circuit space. This idea of only transmittingrepparttar 133355 noisy bits of a telephone call and saving a great deal on circuit space, isrepparttar 133356 basis of Packet-Switching,repparttar 133357 alternative method to circuit switching thatrepparttar 133358 VoIP phone system uses.

Packet-Switching isrepparttar 133359 same method that you use when you view a website. For example, as you read this website, your computer is not maintaining a constant connection torepparttar 133360 site, but rather making connections to send and receive information only on an as needed basis (such as when you click on a link). Just as this system allowsrepparttar 133361 transfer of information overrepparttar 133362 Internet to work so quickly, so also does it work inrepparttar 133363 VoIP system. While circuit switching maintains a constant and open connection, packet switching opens connections just long enough to send bits of data called packets from one computer to another. This allowsrepparttar 133364 network to send your call (in packets) alongrepparttar 133365 least congested and cheapest lines available, while also keeping your computer or IP phone, free to send and receive messages and calls with other computers. This way of sending information, not to mention data compression, makesrepparttar 133366 amount of information which must be transmitted for every call at least 3-4 times less for VoIP thanrepparttar 133367 exact same call in a conventional telephone system. For this reason, VoIP is so much cheaper than conventional calling plans.

The Future of VoIP

While most analysts believe it will be at least a decade before companies and telephone providers makerepparttar 133368 full switch to VoIP,repparttar 133369 potential forrepparttar 133370 technology's use today is already quite astounding. A report byrepparttar 133371 Forrester Research Group predicts that byrepparttar 133372 end of 2006, nearly 5 million U.S. households will be using VoIP phone service. Withrepparttar 133373 savings and flexibility thatrepparttar 133374 technology already offers, and new advances just ahead onrepparttar 133375 horizon, we can expect those numbers will only increase inrepparttar 133376 future.

Rich McIver is a contributing writer for VoIP Now: Voice over IP News. Learn more at .

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