Methods of Improving Boiler Efficiency

Written by Thomas Yoon

Continued from page 1

As steam is generated fromrepparttar evaporation of water,repparttar 150058 remaining water inrepparttar 150059 boiler becomes more and more concentrated. This must be drained away during blow down.

The challenge is to controlrepparttar 150060 draining torepparttar 150061 minimum.

Recovering Waste Heat from Blow down

Since it is necessary to blow down to controlrepparttar 150062 total dissolved solids inrepparttar 150063 boiler water, methods can be adopted to recover some ofrepparttar 150064 heat back fromrepparttar 150065 drained hot water.

Blow down tanks, heat exchanger tubes and pumping arrangements can be fabricated to recover back some ofrepparttar 150066 heat back intorepparttar 150067 boiler.

Stopping Dynamic Operation

Whenever a boiler starts or stops, a few minutes are spent running repparttar 150068 forced draft fan for purgingrepparttar 150069 combustion chamber of unburnt gases. This is a necessary step forrepparttar 150070 safe operation of a boiler.

During this timerepparttar 150071 heat fromrepparttar 150072 boiler water inrepparttar 150073 shell or tubes will be lost torepparttar 150074 purging air.

To avoid this type of losses, it is better to maintain a steady firing condition inrepparttar 150075 boilers.

Reducing Boiler Pressure

By reducingrepparttar 150076 boiler pressure, some ofrepparttar 150077 heat losses through leakages or transmission may be reduced slightly. However there can be problems withrepparttar 150078 boiler with reduced pressure. The boiler circulation may be upset andrepparttar 150079 steam lines may have insufficient capacity and flow to transportrepparttar 150080 low pressure steam.

Operating at Peak Efficiency

When operating two or more boilers, improved efficiency can sometimes be obtained by unequal sharing ofrepparttar 150081 load so thatrepparttar 150082 combined load operates at peak efficiency.

Preheating Combustion Air

Any heat loss fromrepparttar 150083 skin ofrepparttar 150084 boiler torepparttar 150085 boiler room can be utilized back for combustion. By preheatingrepparttar 150086 intake airrepparttar 150087 combustion inrepparttar 150088 furnace becomes more efficient.

Switching from Steam to Air Atomization

For burners with steam atomization, switching to air atomization will naturally result in less steam consumption overall and better boiler efficiencies. This is only applicable for heavy fuel oil burners.

Switching to Lower Cost Fuel

When comparing natural gas and fuel oil, ifrepparttar 150089 cost isrepparttar 150090 same or more per BTU delivered, switch over to fuel oil.

The reason for this is that inrepparttar 150091 combustion process, hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water. The latent heat of vaporization is lost when water vapor leavesrepparttar 150092 boiler stack.

Fuels like natural gas with higher hydrogen to carbon ratio will lose this heat more than those with lower hydrogen-carbon ratio like fuel oil.

However one must also recognize that there will be increased maintenance, operating costs and greater need for more excess air in order to achieve complete combustion for fuel oil. In addition, soot deposits and incomplete combustion might also affectrepparttar 150093 overall costs.

Some ofrepparttar 150094 ways mentioned above may not be feasible at all for your plant. Each of them may result in only a few percentage points of boiler efficiency improvement. However, if carried out carefully and withrepparttar 150095 proper tools and instruments, they do add up to huge savings.

Many years of working experience in Marine, Facilities, Construction has given the author material for writing e-books and articles related to engineering, and management. Subscribe to facworld ezine More information at Marine Engineer and M & E Engineer

Flat Panel Displays - Beyond Plasma

Written by Steve Faber

Continued from page 1

They have a refresh rate about 1,000 times faster than a traditional LCD, so they will be far superior for video applications. They have fewer parts than LCD or plasma and can be manufactured using a novel ink jet printing process. This promises to keep prices low asrepparttar technology is implemented. It is expected to see sub 20" displays in stores by 2006 with larger units following one to two years later.

Other promising display technologies onrepparttar 149927 horizon include SED (Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Display) and carbon Nanotube. SED was developed by Canon, who began research intorepparttar 149928 technology in 1986. SED is basicallyrepparttar 149929 same principle as CRT, however there are important differences. The most important from a consumer standpoint is thickness. An SED display is only an inch or two thick, depending upon screen size.

The basic construction is two glass plates separated by a vacuum. One ofrepparttar 149930 plates is coated with phosphorsrepparttar 149931 other is mounted with electron emitters. Electrons are ejected when a voltage of about 16 to 18 V is applied torepparttar 149932 emitters. These electrons are then accelerated by a higher voltage into a beam similar to that in a CRT display.

The visual advantages of SEDs are as for CRT displays, great color, deep black levels and quick motion response. These advantages, combined withrepparttar 149933 slim form factor, low cost and small power requirement should make for a real winner.

A unit shown by Toshiba at a Japanese trade show in April of 2005 even had its contrast ratio up to an incredible 100,000 to 1 by significantly reducing black luminance. Even ifrepparttar 149934 specs were a bit inflated this would still amount to a fantastic contrast ratio, onrepparttar 149935 order of 5 times that of a traditional CRT. Toshiba has indicated they will move to this technology for all displays over 40 by 2006.

One fly inrepparttar 149936 SED ointment however. On April 21st, 2005 US firm Nano-Proprietary has filed a suit against Canon inrepparttar 149937 U.S. District Court ofrepparttar 149938 Western District of Texas, alleging thatrepparttar 149939 surface (SED) televisions that Canon plans to release violates a licensing agreement signed 5 years ago betweenrepparttar 149940 Japanese giant and Nano-Proprietary.

The pace of change inrepparttar 149941 home theater and entertainment display market has just kept accelerating. There are some promising technologies aroundrepparttar 149942 corner that will allow, as usual, higher performance, lower cost and more compact form factors. As prices for advanced technologies plunge and technology improves, it will make it even easier forrepparttar 149943 average person to have a fantastic media system almost anywhere in their home.

Steve has 15 yrs in electronics. He is a CEDIA certified designer with ISF and THX certificates. Experience includes: installer and programmer; system designer; business unit director for an a/v importer; sales rep for a CE distributor; and principal of a $1.5M+ CEDIA firm. He's now senior sales engineer for Digital Cinema Design in Redmond, WA. See him at The Home Theater and Automation Guide

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