Making the Most of Census Records

Written by Andrew J. Morris

Continued from page 1

Whenever possible, you should retain copies ofrepparttar census pages where you find an ancestor, and even a page or two preceding and followingrepparttar 116174 entry you are interested in. This will save you a great deal of time, since it is often helpful to go back to a census record in search of additional data, when new information becomes available. Look atrepparttar 116175 names ofrepparttar 116176 neighbors. Are they repparttar 116177 same folks who lived nearby in an entirely different location ten or twenty years earlier? They may have migrated together. Did an individual find a spouse from a neighboring farm? Are there relatives settled inrepparttar 116178 same area?

Look at all ofrepparttar 116179 information available for any particular census. Don't neglectrepparttar 116180 information atrepparttar 116181 head ofrepparttar 116182 page, or sometimes onrepparttar 116183 first page ofrepparttar 116184 census for a locality, which gives information onrepparttar 116185 exact daterepparttar 116186 census was compiled, who was recordingrepparttar 116187 information, and details about repparttar 116188 location being surveyed. Isrepparttar 116189 recorder of a different nationality or religion thanrepparttar 116190 family you are researching, and how might that influencerepparttar 116191 recording of details? Name spelling, in particular, is often influenced byrepparttar 116192 recorders idea of what is 'right' or reasonable.

Inrepparttar 116193 1900 U.S. census,repparttar 116194 year of emigration is given for persons born in other countries. Are there others fromrepparttar 116195 same country who arrived atrepparttar 116196 same time living inrepparttar 116197 same area? If you later find a ship's list, and these others are onrepparttar 116198 same ship as someone withrepparttar 116199 same name as your ancestor, you have supporting evidence that you have locatedrepparttar 116200 correct person, and not just someone ofrepparttar 116201 same name. Also, you have identified an important relationship. Human social activity is based on relationships, and identifying those relationships can be informative.

America, for example, is made up of immigrants from all parts of repparttar 116202 world. Very rarely do people new immigrants settle in some particular location just because they have heard it is a good place to be. Most will have friends or relatives who preceded them, and will choose to settle inrepparttar 116203 same area those kith and kin reside. Such relationships helprepparttar 116204 immigrant in finding work or a place of residence, and will be reflected in voluntary associations, such as fraternal groups and religious communities. These same social and kinship relationships will also be found in repparttar 116205 sponsors and witnesses for vital and legal records. Each time you find evidence for an association, such asrepparttar 116206 witness on a marriage record, you should go back torepparttar 116207 census to see where repparttar 116208 new-found person resides, and any similarities in socio-economic status, migration patterns, or other factors for whichrepparttar 116209 census provides evidence.

Census records can also help withrepparttar 116210 process of elimination that is sometimes needed. If you can show through a thorough search of repparttar 116211 census that your John Smith isrepparttar 116212 only John Smith in a particular area, then that heightensrepparttar 116213 probability thatrepparttar 116214 John Smith mentioned in a particular record for that region is indeed 'your' John Smith. Thus it is important to note other families inrepparttar 116215 area withrepparttar 116216 same surname as your ancestors. Sometimes these will turn out to be relatives, while in other cases they help withrepparttar 116217 process of elimination.

When looking for records, be sure to check every census available. Cross checking will help determine which facts are correct, and which are questionable. Don't forget that more than one level of government may conduct censuses, as for example in repparttar 116218 U.S. where there are both Federal and State censuses available for most areas.

Check too for all ofrepparttar 116219 census schedules available. There may be separate schedules for farms or businesses, special groups like slaves, veterans of a particular war, etc. There may even be mention of people not alive atrepparttar 116220 time of census, as inrepparttar 116221 case of mortality schedules. Mine all ofrepparttar 116222 schedules forrepparttar 116223 area of interest for any facts they may yield.

Finally, compare what you find withrepparttar 116224 published census summaries. These summaries do not usually includerepparttar 116225 names of individuals, but they will give statistical information about a particular area. You can comparerepparttar 116226 details fromrepparttar 116227 actual census for your ancestor withrepparttar 116228 statistics for that area, which will tell you how your ancestors fitted intorepparttar 116229 local society. Were they typical forrepparttar 116230 area, or in a small minority in one or another respect? Such evidence can enrich your understanding of your ancestors lives, and with better understanding you can better predict where to find further information.

Census records are a great boon to genealogists -- extract every bit of information you can get from them, then verify those details with supporting evidence from independant sources. Your knowledge of your ancestors will be richer forrepparttar 116231 effort.

The author, Andrew J. Morris, is a writer, programmer, researcher, publisher and general infopreneur. Explore his varied expressions at and and and

Seven Games Dogs Just Love To Play

Written by Renée Alexandrea

Continued from page 1

Play Bowing --– You’ll notice this gesture when your dog is inviting you or his canine friend to play. 4.1—To encourage your dog to play-bowing on command, say ‘Bow!’ when he does. And if he doesn’t gently push his front down and hold up his rear, saying ‘Bow!’ It may be quite difficult to train, but if you catch him doing this act, it’srepparttar best time to start lesson one.

Shaking hands --– Holding out a paw is a natural gesture of submission for dogs. And teaching a dog to shake hands is pretty easy. This is also a good training for grooming time-nail clipping. Tip 5.1—Be onrepparttar 116173 same level with your dog, say ‘Paw!’ as you outstretch you hand. As he raises his paw, gently grasp it and shake. You may want to treat him if he quickly lands his paw onto your palm instead of raising it up.

Jumping --– Most dogs have very nimble bodies, they’re capable to jump at a great height if there’s a reward (food) atrepparttar 116174 higher end. This is something that should be discouraged as it a form of food begging. However there’s a more constructive way to play is using hurdles. Tip 6.1—For a beginner, use rollup wrapping paper asrepparttar 116175 hurdle. Support it with two baby stools at both ends. As your dog gains more accomplishment, increaserepparttar 116176 height. This game is unsuitable for growing puppies as their bones are still very fragile.

Hide-and-Seek --– If dogs have middle name, Sherlock Holmes will be it. Dogs just love to find things, especially you. They can play this game for hours with allies or enemies alike. They also love to be found. Tip 7.1 -- Tell your dog to sit-stay. Then find a great hiding place. Once you’re away from his view, call out his name for him to come to look for you. Increaserepparttar 116177 repetitions of his name if he gets farther away. A treat must be given when he finds you. This game is best played on familiar grounds with limited to no distraction, definitely a no-no in a crowded park.

So what are you waiting for? You don’t need your dog to fetch you those smelling slippers to get you off your couch!

Copyright 2004 Renée Alexandrea

Renée Alexandrea—a former show-dog handler, an ex-volunteer at animal shelters; but an active dog lover for almost four decades. She lives in Singapore with her five ever-devilish Maltese and with the exception of her two Golden Retrievers in Los Angeles. Get a FREE copy of her 4-part e-book at and/or sign up her e-Newspapers at

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