Knowledge Moves

Written by Jack Boulton

Continued from page 1

Knowledge Moves. Strathern (2004) points out that knowledge moves by virtue of being embedded withinrepparttar objects that it is used to create. Therefore, for example,repparttar 107953 price of buying a computer includes not onlyrepparttar 107954 metal and plastic box that you look at, but alsorepparttar 107955 price ofrepparttar 107956 research and development that went into creating it. This is also extensible torepparttar 107957 creation of knowledge inrepparttar 107958 scientific community. Embedded into any scientific paper is not onlyrepparttar 107959 immediate knowledge that it purports to show, but alsorepparttar 107960 information contained inrepparttar 107961 papers that were used to producerepparttar 107962 hypothesis on which it is based. We can return torepparttar 107963 work of Latour for a clearer example of how information changes as it shifts location. In Pandora’s Hope (1999) he describes a field trip by a group of scientists torepparttar 107964 Amazon, designed to investigate a botanical mystery atrepparttar 107965 edge ofrepparttar 107966 rainforest. Several small trees that usually grow only inrepparttar 107967 savannah aroundrepparttar 107968 forest had been found a few metres insiderepparttar 107969 wood, and there was some debate as to whether this was a sign thatrepparttar 107970 forest was advancing (the tree was a scout) or retreating (the tree was left over by a shrinking forest). Latour tracesrepparttar 107971 plot of a group of soil samples from their position atrepparttar 107972 edge ofrepparttar 107973 Amazonian jungle to their eventual resting place inrepparttar 107974 academic literature. Fromrepparttar 107975 ground, a sample is moved to a pedocomparator (a briefcase-sized grid) whereby it can be compared to other samples. Then via a process of inscriptionrepparttar 107976 same soil sample becomes a figure in a chart. Latour likensrepparttar 107977 process to a movement from ‘thing’ to ‘sign’. Oncerepparttar 107978 soil sample has ‘become’ a sign, it can be transmitted and reproduced with ease (ibid 1999: 54). Information then, is transformed as it moves through both time and space. Latour and Woolgar’s ethnography demonstrates that as historical information (inrepparttar 107979 form of facts) is used by people it becomes part of something else, a new ‘fact’, inrepparttar 107980 present day. Tsoukas points out thatrepparttar 107981 individual is a rich source of data which almost immediately becomes decontextualised and readily moved about. As it moves, information takes on new meanings dependent onrepparttar 107982 situation it is used in andrepparttar 107983 person that is using it.


[1]International Classification of Diseases Revision 10. This is used be hospitals to classify patients according torepparttar 107984 illness, disease or accident that they are admitted for. [2]Commonly used tests includerepparttar 107985 standard gamble, feeling thermometer and time trade-off techniques. The Health Technology Assessment Programme has published a review of all of these measures (see references).


American Accounting Association. A Statement of Basic Accounting Theory. 1966; Sarasota, Florida: American Accounting Association.

Bachelard G. Le Materialisme Rationnel. 1953; Paris, PUF.

Brazier J, Deverill M, Green C et al. A Review ofrepparttar 107986 Use of Health Status Measures in Economic Evaluation. Health Technology Assessment 1999; 3: 9.

Hyland ME. Quality-of-Life Measures as Providers of Information on Value-for-Money of Health Interventions – Comparisons and Recommendations for Practice. Pharmacoeconomics 1997; 11 (1): 19-31.

Latour B. Pandora’s Hope - Essays onrepparttar 107987 Reality of Science Studies. 1999; London, Harvard University Press.

Latour B and Woolgar S. Laboratory Life - The Construction of Scientific Facts. 1979; New Jersey, Princeton University Press.

Power M. Making Things Auditable. Accounting, Organisations and Society 1996; 21 (2/3): 289-315.

Power M. The Audit Society – Rituals of Verification. 1997; Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Strathern M. Commons and Borderlands - Working Papers on Interdisciplinarity, Accountability andrepparttar 107988 Flow of Knowledge. 2004; Oxon, Sean King Publishing.

Tzoukas H. The Tyranny of Light - The Temptationsrepparttar 107989 and Paradoxes ofrepparttar 107990 Information Society. Futures 1997; 9: 827-843.

Jack Boulton is the editor of Stimulus Respond, the E-Zine for Urban Anthropologists ( You may reproduce this article with permission (obtained by emailing and on the condition that the author is credited along with a link to Stimulus Respond.

Resolving Conflicts By Turning Negatives Into Positives

Written by Etienne A. Gibbs, MSW, Management Consultant and Trainer

Continued from page 1

B. You-Message: Use this approach when you want to reflect to your listener what you're observing. [Reflectrepparttar emotion.] (Identify and namerepparttar 107952 emotion you are observing.)

(Call person by name), "You seem happy, angry, mad, excited, etc. ... "

C. Active Listening: Use this approach when you want to let someone know that you're truly paying attention. Do so by totally involving your eyes, ears, and body. Pay attention to his body language, move close, cup your hand over your ear, lean forward, etc.

D. Paraphrasing: Use this approach when you want to make sure you did not miss what was said. "So, if I understood you correctly, you said there were only 5 spaces."

E. Summarizing: Use this approach when you want to break up lengthy conversations into smaller pieces that you can remember and understand. Rather than letrepparttar 107953 other person ramble on about what all he did last weekend, take control by asking to tell you about each day's events before moving onrepparttar 107954 next.

Put it all together. Begin SOARING torepparttar 107955 top ofrepparttar 107956 Mountain when you:

* Summarize whenrepparttar 107957 conversation is becoming too lengthy.

* Observe to see ifrepparttar 107958 body language matchesrepparttar 107959 words spoken.

* Actively listen to what is being said by making eye contact.

* Reflect what you thought you heard.

* Indicate that you truly care aboutrepparttar 107960 doer and notrepparttar 107961 deed.

* Namerepparttar 107962 misconduct to bring it out intorepparttar 107963 open.

* Go beyondrepparttar 107964 emotions to get torepparttar 107965 facts.

Remember: When you maximize your potential; we all win. When you don't, we all lose.

© MMIV, Etienne A. Gibbs, MSW

Etienne A. Gibbs, MSW, Management Consultant and Trainer, conducts lectures, seminars, and writes articles on his theme: ... helping you maximize your potential. For more information visit

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