King NarmerWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
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Narmer may have considered Buto as central capital of Delta he had just conquered. On his palette is a hieroglyphic group that could be read as Ta Mehu, later name for Delta region. Since Narmer is shown with Red Crown he was thus first to ascribe this Crown to entire Delta and thus Lower Egypt. He may have transferred Red Crown from Nubt/Naqada to represent entirety of Lower Egypt. The Narmer macehead, also discovered at Hierakonpolis, has had three interpretations. Petrie's theory, also held by later scholars, was that mace head depicted political marriage of Nithotep, princess of north, with Narmer. Other scholars feel macehead depicts a celebration by Narmer of his conquest of north, while still others regard macehead as commemorating a Sed-festival of king. Nithotep's grave has been found at Naqada, with Narmer's name as well as with King Aha's name. Nithotep thus is linked with two kings as wife and mother. Most recently, new studies of images on macehead put forth theory that scenes are not primarily commemorative but are simply pictorial versions of year-names. The focus of scene is king's figure, seen sitting robed in a long cloak enthroned under a canopy on a high dais, wearing Red Crown and holding a flail. The enclosure within which he sits can be interpreted as a shrine or temple. He is attended by minor figures of fan-bearers, bodyguards, with long quarterslaves and an official who may be either vizier or heir-apparent. In front of Narmer three men run a race towards him, while above them stands four men carrying standards. Facing king is a cloaked and beardless figure, over whom is a simple enclosure in which stands a cow and calf .
The running figures may represent Muu dancers, long associated with Buto, presenting a welcome to new lord of Delta. The seated figure facing Narmer may be chief of Buto rather than a princess of Delta. Beneath these figures are symbols of numbers. The numbers have been recently interpreted to indicate 400,000 cattle, 1,422,000 small animals, and 120,000 men (not women and children, only males.) This would have provided for a total human population of Delta of perhaps 600,000. The macehead then commemorates completion of conquest of Lower Egypt, not with a royal dynastic marriage etc, but perhaps, with first Appearance of King of Lower Egypt, by an actual census of Delta people, similar to and a precursor of census taken by William Conqueror after he won England. Some scholars speculate that Menes and Narmer may be same person. Menes is Greek form of name of legendary first human king of Egypt as given by Manetho, historian living in Hellenistic times who constructed one form of King Lists. Hor-Aha, first king of First Dynasty and thus Narmer's probable successor and possibly his son by Queen Nithotep, perhaps took second royal name of Men, which means "established", thus being origin of name Menes. Evidence indicating all this is an ivory label from tomb of Queen Nithotep at Naqada. It shows name Hor-Aha, and name Men, in front of it.
Egyptian radiologist,interested in egyptology.
How to use anchoring for accelerated learningWritten by Stelios C. Perdios
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You could easily learn how to anchor resourceful states of mind in your self, and in your pupils and colleagues. What if you could anchor alpha state onto your thumb or a pupilís thumb? The Alpha State is considered very important for accelerated learning. Scientific evidence shows that listening to music recorded at around sixty beats per minute is conducive to achieving a state of relaxed alertness, free from stress. In this state, you are enabled to learn new concepts and skills far more easily. Classical music by Mozart and baroque pieces are often played to induce alpha state for teaching or training or for personal learning. You could learn how to anchor alpha state so that a simple stimulus could accelerate your learning and learning of others.
Stelios C Perdios Copyright © 2003 SCP Easy Teach ePublishing www.easyteachepublishing.com
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