Just War

Written by Sam Vaknin

Continued from page 1

Having just cause (especially and, according torepparttar United Nations Charter, exclusively, self-defense);

Being (formally) declared by a proper authority;

Possessing a right intention;

Having a reasonable chance of success;

The end being proportional torepparttar 126019 means used."

Yet,repparttar 126020 evolution of warfare -repparttar 126021 invention of nuclear weapons,repparttar 126022 propagation of total war,repparttar 126023 ubiquity of guerrilla and national liberation movements,repparttar 126024 emergence of global, border-hopping terrorist organizations, of totalitarian regimes, and rogue or failed states - requires these principles to be modified by adding these tenets:

Thatrepparttar 126025 declaring authority is a lawfully and democratically elected government.

Thatrepparttar 126026 declaration of war reflectsrepparttar 126027 popular will.

(Extension of 3) The right intention is to act in just cause.

(Extension of 4) ... or a reasonable chance of avoiding an annihilating defeat.

(Extension of 5) Thatrepparttar 126028 outcomes of war are preferable torepparttar 126029 outcomes ofrepparttar 126030 preservation of peace.

Still,repparttar 126031 doctrine of just war, conceived in Europe in eras past, is fraying atrepparttar 126032 edges. Rights and corresponding duties are ill-defined or mismatched. What is legal is not always moral and what is legitimate is not invariably legal. Political realism and quasi-religious idealism sit uncomfortably withinrepparttar 126033 same conceptual framework. Norms are vague and debatable while customary law is only partially subsumed inrepparttar 126034 tradition (i.e., in treaties, conventions and other instruments, as well inrepparttar 126035 actual conduct of states).

The most contentious issue is, of course, what constitutes "just cause". Self-defense, in its narrowest sense (reaction to direct and overwhelming armed aggression), is a justified casus belli. But what aboutrepparttar 126036 use of force to (deontologically, consequentially, or ethically):

Prevent or ameliorate a slow-motion or permanent humanitarian crisis;

Preempt a clear and present danger of aggression ("anticipatory or preemptive self-defense" against what Grotius called "immediate danger");

Secure a safe environment for urgent and indispensable humanitarian relief operations;

Restore democracy inrepparttar 126037 attacked state ("regime change");

Restore public order inrepparttar 126038 attacked state;

Prevent human rights violations or crimes against humanity or violations of international law byrepparttar 126039 attacked state;

Keeprepparttar 126040 peace ("peacekeeping operations") and enforce compliance with international or bilateral treaties betweenrepparttar 126041 aggressor andrepparttar 126042 attacked state orrepparttar 126043 attacked state and a third party;

Suppress armed infiltration, indirect aggression, or civil strife aided and abetted byrepparttar 126044 attacked state;

Honor one's obligations to frameworks and treaties of collective self-defense;

Protect one's citizens orrepparttar 126045 citizens of a third party insiderepparttar 126046 attacked state;

Protect one's property or assets owned by a third party insiderepparttar 126047 attacked state;

Respond to an invitation byrepparttar 126048 authorities ofrepparttar 126049 attacked state - and with their expressed consent - to militarily intervene withinrepparttar 126050 territory ofrepparttar 126051 attacked state;

React to offenses againstrepparttar 126052 nation's honor or its economy.

Unless these issues are resolved and codified,repparttar 126053 entire edifice of international law - and, more specifically,repparttar 126054 law of war - is in danger of crumbling. The contemporary multilateral regime proved inadequate and unable to effectively tackle genocide (Rwanda, Bosnia), terror (in Africa, Central Asia, andrepparttar 126055 Middle East), weapons of mass destruction (Iraq, India, Israel, Pakistan, North Korea), and tyranny (in dozens of members ofrepparttar 126056 United Nations).

This feebleness inevitably led torepparttar 126057 resurgence of "might is right" unilateralism, as practiced, for instance, byrepparttar 126058 United States in places as diverse as Grenada and Iraq. This pernicious and ominous phenomenon is coupled with contempt towards and suspicion of international organizations, treaties, institutions, undertakings, andrepparttar 126059 prevailing consensual order.

In a unipolar world, reliant on a single superpower for its security,repparttar 126060 abrogation ofrepparttar 126061 rules ofrepparttar 126062 game could lead to chaotic and lethal anarchy with a multitude of "rebellions" againstrepparttar 126063 emergent American Empire. International law -repparttar 126064 formalism of "natural law" - is only one of many competing universalist and missionary value systems. Militant Islam is another. The West must adoptrepparttar 126065 former to counterrepparttar 126066 latter.

Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at http://samvak.tripod.com

The Disunited Nations

Written by Sam Vaknin

Continued from page 1

Kofi Annan,repparttar U.N. General Secretary since 1997, is promotingrepparttar 126018 nation-building and humanitarian credentials of his reformed outfit forrepparttar 126019 postwar reconstruction of Iraq. American President George Bush is less than keen and Prime Minister Tony Blair of Britain has moderated his pro-multilateralist rhetoric following his meeting with Bush last week.

Even erstwhile keen supporters ofrepparttar 126020 United Nations, such as Japan, a surprising member ofrepparttar 126021 "coalition ofrepparttar 126022 willing", are hesitant. Japan contributes close to one fifth ofrepparttar 126023 international body's regular budget. Yet, disillusioned by its inability to gain permanent membership ofrepparttar 126024 Security Council despite its economic clout, Japan announced, in January, its intention to cut its participation by 5 percent.

The United States seems to wish to consignrepparttar 126025 organization torepparttar 126026 humanitarian aspects of Iraq's restoration. Last Friday,repparttar 126027 U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) granted $8 million torepparttar 126028 U.N.'s Children's Fund (UNICEF) to pay for sanitation, healthcare and potable water schemes in Iraq as well as for micronutrients, vitamins and medicines for its malnourished and disease-stricken populace.

Succumbing to its niche typecasting,repparttar 126029 United Nations has launched an unprecedented $2.2 billion "emergency appeal for immediate humanitarian assistance forrepparttar 126030 people of Iraq overrepparttar 126031 next six months, with $1.3 billion devoted to a massive food aid operation ... to helprepparttar 126032 displaced, refugees, children,repparttar 126033 elderly and other especially vulnerable groups". The donor funds will augmentrepparttar 126034 proceeds ofrepparttar 126035 revamped oil-for-food program, now entirely underrepparttar 126036 control ofrepparttar 126037 General Secretary.

So, isrepparttar 126038 United Nations really "just a farce" and its members mostly "petty despots" as Conrad Black, The Canadian media mogul, has it in recent interviews? Or, paradoxically, has this international body been strengthened by its faithful depiction of resistant world opinion inrepparttar 126039 face of perceived Anglo-Saxon bullying? The global assembly's future largely depends on an incensed and disenchanted United States.

Unable to rely onrepparttar 126040 kindness of strangers, Annan is reaching out to new constituencies.

Atrepparttar 126041 1999 World Economic Forum in Davos, he challengedrepparttar 126042 global business community to enter a "Global Compact" withrepparttar 126043 U.N. to uphold "human rights, labour standards and environmental practices." The International Chamber of Commerce, representing 7,000 business organizations in 137 countries, picked uprepparttar 126044 gauntlet and published a joint statement at a July 1999 meeting with United Nations bigwigs.

This uneasy partnership drew severe criticisms from non-governmental organizationsrepparttar 126045 world over. Corpwatch, a California-based NGO, observed acidly that "inrepparttar 126046 first 18 months ofrepparttar 126047 Global Compact, we have seen a growing but secret membership, heavy influence byrepparttar 126048 International Chamber of Commerce, and a failure to publish even a single case study of sustainable practices. The Global Compact logo has been used without attribution by DaimlerChrysler, even as Global Compact officials insist that use ofrepparttar 126049 general UN logo is strictly controlled. The Global Compact represents a smuggling of a business agenda intorepparttar 126050 United Nations. It should not be considered a contribution to or framework forrepparttar 126051 Johannesburg Summit."

The United Nations - like NATO and other Cold War critters - is an organization in search of a purpose. The demise ofrepparttar 126052 USSR constituted a tectonic shift in international affairs. The U.N.'s inability to accommodate its institutions torepparttar 126053 supremacy ofrepparttar 126054 United States,repparttar 126055 demography of China,repparttar 126056 decline of Britain and France andrepparttar 126057 economic clout of Germany and Japan are symptoms of denial and delusion that are detrimental torepparttar 126058 future of this otherwise benign and useful establishment. The war in Iraq is merely a rude wake-up call. And about time, too.

Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at http://samvak.tripod.com

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