Intuition - Part II

Written by Sam Vaknin


Continued from page 1

IIC. Kant

According to Kant, our senses acquaint us withrepparttar particulars of things and thus provide us with intuitions. The faculty of understanding provided us with useful taxonomies of particulars ("concepts"). Yet, concepts without intuitions were as empty and futile as intuitions without concepts. Perceptions ("phenomena") arerepparttar 126210 composite ofrepparttar 126211 sensations caused byrepparttar 126212 perceived objects andrepparttar 126213 mind's reactions to such sensations ("form"). These reactions arerepparttar 126214 product of intuition.

IID. The Absolute Idealists

Schelling suggested a featureless, undifferentiated, union of opposites asrepparttar 126215 Absolute Ideal. Intellectual intuition entails such a union of opposites (subject and object) and, thus, is immersed and assimilated byrepparttar 126216 Absolute and becomes as featureless and undifferentiated asrepparttar 126217 Absolute is.

Objective Idealists claimed that we can know ultimate (spiritual) reality by intuition (or thought) independent ofrepparttar 126218 senses (the mystical argument). The mediation of words and symbol systems only distortsrepparttar 126219 "signal" and inhibitsrepparttar 126220 effective application of one's intuition torepparttar 126221 attainment of real, immutable, knowledge.

IIE. The Phenomenologists

The Phenomenological point of view is that every thing has an invariable and irreducible "essence" ("Eidos", as distinguished from contingent information aboutrepparttar 126222 thing). We can grasp this essence only intuitively ("Eidetic Reduction"). This process - of transcendingrepparttar 126223 concrete and reaching forrepparttar 126224 essential - is independent of facts, concrete objects, or mental constructs. But it is not free from methodology ("free variation"), from factual knowledge, or from ideal intuitions. The Phenomenologist is forced to makerepparttar 126225 knowledge of facts his point of departure. He then applies a certain methodology (he variesrepparttar 126226 nature and specifications ofrepparttar 126227 studied object to reveal its essence) which relies entirely on ideal intuitions (such asrepparttar 126228 rules of logic).

Phenomenology, in other words, is an Idealistic form of Rationalism. It applies reason to discover Platonic (Idealism) essences. Like Rationalism, it is not empirical (it is not based on sense data). Actually, it is anti-empirical - it "brackets"repparttar 126229 concrete andrepparttar 126230 factual in its attempt to delve beyond appearances and into essences. It calls forrepparttar 126231 application of intuition (Anschauung) to discover essential insights (Wesenseinsichten).

"Phenomenon" in Phenomenology is that which is known by consciousness and in it. Phenomenologists regarded intuition as a "pure", direct, and primitive way of reducing clutter in reality. It is immediate andrepparttar 126232 basis of a higher level perception. A philosophical system built on intuition would, perforce, be non speculative. Hence, Phenomenology's emphasis onrepparttar 126233 study of consciousness (and intuition) rather than onrepparttar 126234 study of (deceiving) reality. It is through "Wesensschau" (the intuition of essences) that one reachesrepparttar 126235 invariant nature of things (by applying free variation techniques).

Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at http://samvak.tripod.com




The Psychology of Torture - Part I

Written by Sam Vaknin


Continued from page 1

Torture isrepparttar ultimate act of perverted intimacy. The torturer invadesrepparttar 126209 victim's body, pervades his psyche, and possesses his mind. Deprived of contact with others and starved for human interactions,repparttar 126210 prey bonds withrepparttar 126211 predator. "Traumatic bonding", akin torepparttar 126212 Stockholm Syndrome, is about hope andrepparttar 126213 search for meaning inrepparttar 126214 brutal and indifferent and nightmarish universe ofrepparttar 126215 torture cell.

The abuser becomesrepparttar 126216 black hole atrepparttar 126217 center ofrepparttar 126218 victim's surrealistic galaxy, sucking inrepparttar 126219 sufferer's universal need for solace. The victim tries to "control" his tormentor by becoming one with him (introjecting him) and by appealing torepparttar 126220 monster's presumably dormant humanity and empathy.

This bonding is especially strong whenrepparttar 126221 torturer andrepparttar 126222 tortured form a dyad and "collaborate" inrepparttar 126223 rituals and acts of torture (for instance, whenrepparttar 126224 victim is coerced into selectingrepparttar 126225 torture implements andrepparttar 126226 types of torment to be inflicted, or to choose between two evils).

The psychologist Shirley Spitz offers this powerful overview ofrepparttar 126227 contradictory nature of torture in a seminar titled "The Psychology of Torture" (1989):

"Torture is an obscenity in that it joins what is most private with what is most public. Torture entails allrepparttar 126228 isolation and extreme solitude of privacy with none ofrepparttar 126229 usual security embodied therein... Torture entails atrepparttar 126230 same time allrepparttar 126231 self-exposure ofrepparttar 126232 utterly public with none of its possibilities for camaraderie or shared experience. (The presence of an all powerful other with whom to merge, withoutrepparttar 126233 security ofrepparttar 126234 other's benign intentions.)

A further obscenity of torture isrepparttar 126235 inversion it makes of intimate human relationships. The interrogation is a form of social encounter in whichrepparttar 126236 normal rules of communicating, of relating, of intimacy are manipulated. Dependency needs are elicited byrepparttar 126237 interrogator, but not so they may be met as in close relationships, but to weaken and confuse. Independence that is offered in return for 'betrayal' is a lie. Silence is intentionally misinterpreted either as confirmation of information or as guilt for 'complicity'.

Torture combines complete humiliating exposure with utter devastating isolation. The final products and outcome of torture are a scarred and often shattered victim and an empty display ofrepparttar 126238 fiction of power."

Obsessed by endless ruminations, demented by pain and a continuum of sleeplessness repparttar 126239 victim regresses, shedding all butrepparttar 126240 most primitive defense mechanisms: splitting, narcissism, dissociation, Projective Identification, introjection, and cognitive dissonance. The victim constructs an alternative world, often suffering from depersonalization and derealization, hallucinations, ideas of reference, delusions, and psychotic episodes.

(continued)



Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at http://samvak.tripod.com




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