Intuition - Part I

Written by Sam Vaknin


Continued from page 1

Artists - especially performing artists (like musicians) - often describe their interpretation of an artwork (e.g., a musical piece) in terms of this type of intuition. Many mathematicians and physicists (following a kind of Pythagorean tradition) use emergent intuitions in solving general nonlinear equations (by guessingrepparttar approximants) or partial differential equations.

Henri Poincaret insisted (in a presentation torepparttar 126193 Psychological Society of Paris, 1901) that even simple mathematical operations require an "intuition of mathematical order" without which no creativity in mathematics is possible. He described how some of his creative work occurred to him out ofrepparttar 126194 blue and without any preparation,repparttar 126195 result of emergent intuitions. These intuitions had "the characteristics of brevity, suddenness and immediate certainty... Most striking at first is this appearance of sudden illumination, a manifest sign of long, unconscious prior work. The role of this unconscious work in mathematical invention appears to me incontestable, and traces of it would be found in other cases where it is less evident."

Subjectively, emergent intuitions are indistinguishable from insights. Yet insight is more "cognitive" and structured and concerned with objective learning and knowledge. It is a novel reaction or solution, based on already acquired responses and skills, to new stimuli and challenges. Still, a strong emotional (e.g., aesthetic) correlate usually exists in both insight and emergent intuition.

Intuition and insight are strong elements in creativity,repparttar 126196 human response to an ever changing environment. They are shock inducers and destabilizers. Their aim is to moverepparttar 126197 organism from one established equilibrium torepparttar 126198 next and thus better prepare it to cope with new possibilities, challenges, and experiences. Both insight and intuition are inrepparttar 126199 realm ofrepparttar 126200 unconscious,repparttar 126201 simple, andrepparttar 126202 mentally disordered. Hencerepparttar 126203 great importance of obtaining insights and integrating them in psychoanalysis - an equilibrium altering therapy.

IC. Ideal Intuitions

The third type of intuition isrepparttar 126204 "ideal intuition". These are thoughts and feelings that precede any intellectual analysis and underlie it. Moral ideals and rules may be such intuitions (see "Morality - a State of Mind?"). Mathematical and logical axioms and basic rules of inference ("necessary truths") may also turn out to be intuitions. These moral, mathematical, and logical self-evident conventions do not relate torepparttar 126205 world. They are elements ofrepparttar 126206 languages we use to describerepparttar 126207 world (or ofrepparttar 126208 codes that regulate our conduct in it). It follows that these a-priori languages and codes are nothing butrepparttar 126209 set of our embedded ideal intuitions.

Asrepparttar 126210 Rationalists realized, ideal intuitions (a class of undeniable, self-evident truths and principles) can be accessed by our intellect. Rationalism is concerned with intuitions - though only with those intuitions available to reason and intellect. Sometimes,repparttar 126211 boundary between intuition and deductive reasoning is blurred as they both yieldrepparttar 126212 same results. Moreover, intuitions can be combined to yield metaphysical or philosophical systems. Descartes applied ideal intuitions (e.g., reason) to his eidetic intuitions to yield his metaphysics. Husserl, Twardowki, even Bolzano didrepparttar 126213 same in developingrepparttar 126214 philosophical school of Phenomenology.



Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at http://samvak.tripod.com




The Narcissist in the Workplace

Written by Sam Vaknin


Continued from page 1

Narcissists are pathological liars. They think nothing of it because their very self is false, their own confabulation.

Here are a few useful guidelines:

Never disagree withrepparttar narcissist or contradict him;

Never offer him any intimacy;

Look awed by whatever attribute matters to him (for instance: by his professional achievements or by his good looks, or by his success with women and so on);

Never remind him of life out there and if you do, connect it somehow to his sense of grandiosity. You can aggrandize even your office supplies,repparttar 126192 most mundane thing conceivable by saying: "These arerepparttar 126193 BEST art materials ANY workplace is going to have", "We get them EXCLUSIVELY", etc.;

Do not make any comment, which might directly or indirectly impinge onrepparttar 126194 narcissist's self-image, omnipotence, superior judgement, omniscience, skills, capabilities, professional record, or even omnipresence. Bad sentences start with: "I think you overlooked made a mistake here you don't know do you know you were not here yesterday so you cannot you should (interpreted as rude imposition, narcissists react very badly to perceived restrictions placed on their freedom) I (never mentionrepparttar 126195 fact that you are a separate, independent entity, narcissists regard others as extensions of their selves)" You getrepparttar 126196 gist of it.

Manage your narcissistic boss. Notice patterns in his bullying. Is he more aggressive on Monday mornings - and more open to suggestions on Friday afternoon? Is he amenable to flattery? Can you modify his conduct by appealing to his morality, superior knowledge, good manners, cosmopolitanism, or upbringing? Manipulatingrepparttar 126197 narcissist isrepparttar 126198 only way to survive in such a tainted workplace.

Canrepparttar 126199 narcissist be harnessed? Can his energies be channeled productively?

This would be a deeply flawed and even dangerous "advice". Various management gurus purport to teach us how to harness this force of nature known as malignant or pathological narcissism. Narcissists are driven, visionary, ambitious, exciting and productive, says Michael Maccoby, for instance. To ignore such a resource is a criminal waste. All we need to do is learn how to "handle" them.

Yet, this prescription is either naive or disingenuous. Narcissists cannot be "handled", or "managed", or "contained", or "channeled". They are, by definition, incapable of team work. They lack empathy, are exploitative, envious, haughty and feel entitled, even if such a feeling is commensurate only with their grandiose fantasies and when their accomplishments are meager.

Narcissists dissemble, conspire, destroy and self-destruct. Their drive is compulsive, their vision rarely grounded in reality, their human relations a calamity. Inrepparttar 126200 long run, there is no enduring benefit to dancing with narcissists only ephemeral and, often, fallacious, "achievements".



Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He is a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent, and the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory Bellaonline, and Suite101 .

Visit Sam's Web site at http://samvak.tripod.com




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