Human Cultural Evolution(?)

Written by Robert Bruce Baird

Continued from page 1
“Preconceived opinions onrepparttar lack of maritime activity in pre-Spanish America have also affectedrepparttar 127600 botanical discussions ofrepparttar 127601 origin ofrepparttar 127602 common garden bean, ‘Phaseolus vulgaris’. Last century Könicke, in a paper onrepparttar 127603 home ofrepparttar 127604 garden bean, pointed out that this crop plant was formerly generally accepted as having been cultivated in Europe byrepparttar 127605 ancient Greeks and Romans, underrepparttar 127606 name of Dolickos, Phaseolus, etc. The cultivation ofrepparttar 127607 same bean amongrepparttar 127608 Aborigines of America was therefore explained asrepparttar 127609 result of its post-Columbian introduction fromrepparttar 127610 Old World byrepparttar 127611 early Spaniards. (2) This wasrepparttar 127612 theory until Wittmack discovered in 1880repparttar 127613 common garden bean amongrepparttar 127614 archaeological excavations of Reiss and Stübel atrepparttar 127615 prehistoric cemetery of Ancon, Peru. (3) It was there found interred as food with mummy burials long antedatingrepparttar 127616 European discovery of America. Here was suddenly ample proof ofrepparttar 127617 pre-European cultivation of ‘Phaseolus’ in America, and beans were subsequently recovered from pre-Incan sites alongrepparttar 127618 entire coast of Peru. At this time, however, pre-Columbian specimens ofrepparttar 127619 ‘European’ bean were no longer accessible. The view was taken, therefore, thatrepparttar 127620 Old World ‘Phaseolus’ must after all have originated in aboriginal ‘America’, and been carried back thence to Europe byrepparttar 127621 early Spaniards. (4) {Some have gone so far as to say that bird droppings arerepparttar 127622 result of all these plant migration. The Yam or American sweet potato turnedrepparttar 127623 tide forrepparttar 127624 champion of Euro-centric history in botany and zoology. He had to confess he had been wrong after decades of fightingrepparttar 127625 point. Why then do we celebraterepparttar 127626 SLAVER Columbus? Is it not to maintain a colonial secret of deceit upon which our sovereign nations are founded? The Incans had a style of government that utopian philosophers like Sir Francis Bacon used asrepparttar 127627 model in writing about possible forms of great government.} More recently Hutchison, Silow and Stephens pointed out, with corroborative botanical evidence, thatrepparttar 127628 ‘Phaseolus’ beans represent but one more indication of contact betweenrepparttar 127629 Old and New World before Columbus. (5) The same problem concerns varieties ofrepparttar 127630 lima bean, ‘Phaseolus lunatus’, growing wild in Guatemala and common inrepparttar 127631 earliest Chimu and Nazca graves of coastal Peru. In 1950 Sauer points to certain very early genetic peculiarities of a race of lima beans of primitive characteristics long under cultivation in parts of Indonesia and Indo-China, and says: ‘If, then, south-eastern Asia should prove to be a reservoir ofrepparttar 127632 more primitive lima beans, long since extinct in Peru and Mexico, a further problem ofrepparttar 127633 time and manner of trans-Pacific connection is raised by whichrepparttar 127634 American bean was communicated torepparttar 127635 native population acrossrepparttar 127636 Pacific.’ (6) The same problem is also raised by a related bean,repparttar 127637 jackbean, or swordbean, ‘Canavalia’ sp. Stoner and Anderson have called attention torepparttar 127638 following: ‘The sword bean (‘Canavalia’), widely cultivated throughoutrepparttar 127639 Pacific and always considered to be of Old World origin, is now known from prehistoric sites alongrepparttar 127640 coasts of both South America and Mexico.’ (7) ‘Canavalia’ beans excavated fromrepparttar 127641 stratified deposits at Huaca Prieta onrepparttar 127642 Pacific coast of Peru, date from between 3000 and 1000 BC. (8) Sauer states that its archaeological distribution and relation to wild species now indicaterepparttar 127643 jackbean as a New World domesticate. (9) The above brief survey will show that, not only has anthropological thought for nearly a century been biased by ethno-botanical evidence, but to a quite considerable extent anthropological presuppositions have similarly affected American botany. The literature onrepparttar 127644 origin and spread of certain American and Pacific island cultigens demonstrates that many botanical assumptions have been based onrepparttar 127645 conviction thatrepparttar 127646 New World was isolated fromrepparttar 127647 rest ofrepparttar 127648 world prior torepparttar 127649 voyage of Columbus. Similarly, it has been taken for granted that only Indonesian craft could move eastwards intorepparttar 127650 open Pacific, whereasrepparttar 127651 culture ofrepparttar 127652 South American people was presumably confined to their own coastal waters due torepparttar 127653 lack of seaworthy craft. The material reviewed above shows that there is adequate evidence of aboriginal export of American plants intorepparttar 127654 adjacent part ofrepparttar 127655 Pacific island area… Merrill favours Africa asrepparttar 127656 original homeland ofrepparttar 127657 gourd, and proposes that it reached America acrossrepparttar 127658 Atlantic. (10) Ifrepparttar 127659 13-chromosomed cultivated Old World cotton, together with wild American species, were actually employed inrepparttar 127660 hybridization ofrepparttar 127661 26 chromosomed New World cotton species then an overseas introduction fromrepparttar 127662 Old World is by far shorter and easier withrepparttar 127663 westward drifts acrossrepparttar 127664 open Atlantic than againstrepparttar 127665 elements acrossrepparttar 127666 six times wider Pacific, where no 13-chromosomed cottons exist. The coconut was relayed straight acrossrepparttar 127667 Pacific. If it originated in tropic America where all related genera occur, it must have spread withrepparttar 127668 earliest Pacific voyagers, since it was present in Indonesia atrepparttar 127669 beginning ofrepparttar 127670 Christian era. The yam has a similar complete trans-Pacific distribution…repparttar 127671 same strong ocean river, sweeping from Mexico straight torepparttar 127672 Philippines should be taken into account.” (11) The dyeing industry of Phoenician purple is in Peru as well as Mexico, and it was a critical and valuable export of Tyre. There are heraldic similarities and customs galore which we will continue to show. The purpose of adding these tidbits to allrepparttar 127673 other ones I have covered in other books is to demonstrate two things. First and foremost (forrepparttar 127674 purposes of this book), we can see academics and science are frequently wrong. Wrong, and motivated! Secondarily there isrepparttar 127675 matter of megaliths and henges, Pyramids and dolmen or Round Towers that are all overrepparttar 127676 World. They are key components ofrepparttar 127677 Neolithic Library system that encompassed allrepparttar 127678 ‘Brotherhood’ of man in a spiritual and growth oriented culture of tolerance and egalitarian morals.


1) Darwin's Century, Evolution andrepparttar 127679 Man Who Discovered It., by Loren Eisely, 1958, Doubleday, 1961, pg. 187. 2) Sea Routes to Polynesia, by Thor Heyerdahl, with editorial notes by Karl Jettmar, Ph.D., Professor of Ethnology, Univ. of Heidelberg, and a foreword by Hans W: son Ahlmann, Ph. D. former President ofrepparttar 127680 International Geographical Union, 1968, Futura Publ., ed., 1974. brings us Könicke (1885, p.136) from pg. 73. 3) Ibid, Wittmack, (1880, p.176). 4) Ibid, Wittmack, (1886, 1888) 5) Ibid, Hutchinson, Silow and Stephens (1947, pg.138). 6) Ibid, Sauer (1950, p.502). 7) Ibid, Stoner and Anderson, (1949, p.392). 8) Ibid, Whitaker and Bird (1949, pg.2.). 9) Ibid, Sauer (1950, pg.499). 10) Ibid, Merrill (1950, pp.9-10). 11) Ibid, pgs. 73-76.

Columnist for The ES Press Magazine Author of Diverse Druids guest writer


Written by dr anil maheshwari

Continued from page 1
In Hindu mythology---Man generally represents Aasman (the sky)---whilerepparttar woman is Dharti (earth)------man(purush) is known asrepparttar 127599 Creator(rachieta) andrepparttar 127600 woman(prakriti) is his creation(rachna)---Canrepparttar 127601 creator be equal to his creation???????------Man isrepparttar 127602 possessor----woman is his possession---Canrepparttar 127603 possessor be equal to his possession????????? God and Mother nature have created and endowed man and woman with absolutely different qualities, attributes and functions------So can anyone please throw some light on " Any aspect in which man and woman are equal" and should be treated as equals????????? Your thoughts are eagerly awaited


ok---om shanti---shivbaba yaad hai pbk dr anil maheshwari. websites : (for bks only) : (for BKs only) : (for beginners)


Surgeon from mumbai--india----interested in knowing the how and why of the creation of this universe---and religion--spirituality--rajyoga meditation.

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