How Are Ugg Boots Are Made?

Written by Geoff Sharp

Continued from page 1

Scouring (30-45 minutes) - Surfactants are used at 38oC to remove dirt and grease (lanolin) fromrepparttar wool.

Pickling (16 hours) - Prior to tanning,repparttar 148726 skins are pickled in a solution containing acid and salt. The salt is added to prevent swelling ofrepparttar 148727 skins byrepparttar 148728 acid. The internal pH ofrepparttar 148729 skins is lowered to approximately 2.8-3.0, thereby preparingrepparttar 148730 skins for penetration byrepparttar 148731 tanning agent.

Tanning (16 hours) - Tanning is generally achieved by using chromium salts which form cross-links withrepparttar 148732 collagen, stabilisingrepparttar 148733 skin structure and preventing putrefaction. The tanning step is conducted at about 25oC and pH 2.5-3.0 to allow for penetration ofrepparttar 148734 chrome. Once penetrated,repparttar 148735 chrome is fixed torepparttar 148736 collagen by raisingrepparttar 148737 pH to about 3.6 using sodium bicarbonate, and heating to about 35-40oC. This step raisesrepparttar 148738 shrinkage temperature ofrepparttar 148739 skin from about 60oC to around 100oC.

Wool Dyeing / Fatliquoring (3-4 hours) - After tanning,repparttar 148740 wool may be dyed a variety of colours. Wool dyeing is performed at about pH 4.5-6 and at 60-65oC, "Pelt reserve agents" being added to preventrepparttar 148741 wool dye stainingrepparttar 148742 pelt. Afterrepparttar 148743 dye is exhausted,repparttar 148744 pH is lowered to about 4.0 to fixrepparttar 148745 dyes torepparttar 148746 wool, and fatliquor is added torepparttar 148747 bath. Fatliquors are emulsified oils which are used in leather manufacture to lubricaterepparttar 148748 collagen fibres, allowing them to move freely whenrepparttar 148749 skin is dried, thereby imparting softness torepparttar 148750 skin.

Drying (4-24 hours) - Once tanned and wool dyed,repparttar 148751 skins are then dried in heated forced-air dryers by "toggling"repparttar 148752 skins to a frame. Drying is conducted at temperatures of 50-80oC.

Drycleaning (4-24 hours) - The dried skins are "drycleaned" in either white spirit (a high-boiling petroleum fraction) or perchloroethylene. The drycleaning removesrepparttar 148753 natural fat and grease present withinrepparttar 148754 skins.

Pelt Dyeing / Syntanning - Oncerepparttar 148755 pelt grease is removed,repparttar 148756 skins are returned torepparttar 148757 paddle for pelt dyeing. This step is performed at low temperature (less than 30oC) in order to minimise staining ofrepparttar 148758 wool byrepparttar 148759 pelt dye. After pelt dyeing,repparttar 148760 skins are "syntanned" using synthetic tanning agents in order to giverepparttar 148761 pelts added fullness and firmness. The skins are then redried.

Step 2. Finishing

Once allrepparttar 148762 tanning and processing steps have been completed,repparttar 148763 skins are ready for final finishing prior to being used in ugg boot manufacture.

Staking - After "conditioning"repparttar 148764 skins to approximately 20% moisture content,repparttar 148765 skins are staked in a staking machine. This softens and stretchesrepparttar 148766 skin pelt, and puts a "nap" onrepparttar 148767 pelt surface.

Combing / Ironing / Clipping - The wool is combed in a combing machine to remove tangles and any burrs or grass seeds present inrepparttar 148768 wool. An iron (a hot, 150oC revolving cylinder) straightensrepparttar 148769 wool, removingrepparttar 148770 natural wool crimp. Finally, a cylinder clipping machine is used to cliprepparttar 148771 wool pile torepparttar 148772 desired length, usually about 12-15 mm.

Step 3. Manufacturing

Panels are cut fromrepparttar 148773 skins using a "clicking press". Once cut,repparttar 148774 panels are sewn together using industrial sewing machines, thenrepparttar 148775 sole is glued torepparttar 148776 boot. Once this is done,repparttar 148777 boots are ready for sale!

Hopefully this article has helped you understand a little on the process of sheepskin hide preperation and ugg boot manfacture. Please feel free to browse our range at:

Australian Ugg Boots

Women and Friendship, is it as good or better than Chocolate?

Written by Tina Frazer

Continued from page 1

Have you every noticed that when you do finally takerepparttar time to make that phone call to your friend, send that e-mail, or arrange that dinner or movie date, that you feel so good you automatically start planning forrepparttar 148671 next chat or get together. We do this because this needed interaction with our female friends just leaves us eager for more. This "feel good" addiction is similar to why we automatically eat more than one piece of chocolate inrepparttar 148672 box (and admit it, we rarely stop at just one).

I may be disqualified to judge what is truly better, friendships between women; or chocolate, since I admittedly confessed to being a "chocoholic". After all, some of you reading this article may not even like chocolate. In my opinion they are both equally fabulous. However, I do want to say if ever you needed to slow down, and purposely make time for something in your life amongst your daily juggling of activities, then please do so for friendships. Finding "friendship" time needs to be a priority even if it is once a week or once a month, to catch up with old friends and to make new ones. It's healthy, it makes you feel good, and you (we) deserve more of it.

Cheers to a happy, healthy, life shared with many great friends and of course a bit of chocolate!

Written by: Tina Frazer

Tina Frazer isrepparttar 148673 Founder of Let's Be, a friendship website for women. Let's Be promotes and encourages new friendships among women of all ages* and stages of life who share similar interests, lifestyles, and values. Our mission at Let's Be is to reintroduce friendship as a priority in women's lives. For more information about Let's Be click on

*Members must be at least 18 years old.

Tina Frazer is the Founder of Let's Be, a friendship website for women. Let's Be promotes and encourages new friendships among women of all ages* and all stages of life who share similar interests, lifestyles, and values. For more information about Let's Be click on *Members must be at least 18 years old.

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