General Characteristics of Tobacco

Written by Tanya Roberts

Continued from page 1

We know that probablyrepparttar contrary isrepparttar 113198 truth; but all our efforts to draw any conclusion for or againstrepparttar 113199 adaptation of a race to a production of a climate, are rendered futile byrepparttar 113200 teachings, not more of our religion, than of naturalists, who insist for a central point of origin for all races, and a constitution suited to all climates. The safest position to hold is that a bad habit may be formed in any latitude, and supported by any number of arguments, whererepparttar 113201 wish still holds its mysterious power overrepparttar 113202 conclusions of what we call reason.

As regardsrepparttar 113203 composition of tobacco, we have endless experiments in that nearly new science, Organic Chemistry, which seems to tryrepparttar 113204 patience of industry itself. There are some nine or ten different substances, which go torepparttar 113205 formation of a tobacco leaf, and these seem to change in their proportions according torepparttar 113206 condition ofrepparttar 113207 plant. Setting aside starch, various acids, and salts, we come to what may be termedrepparttar 113208 essential element or principle called Nicotina. These proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and azotes, really tell torepparttar 113209 analyst nothing from which he could predicate any thing certain as torepparttar 113210 character ofrepparttar 113211 compound.

In this respect, allrepparttar 113212 formula of organic substances is nearly underrepparttar 113213 same mystery, a small difference inrepparttar 113214 proportions producingrepparttar 113215 greatest difference inrepparttar 113216 combined results. But we can be under no mistake as torepparttar 113217 character ofrepparttar 113218 element which is called Nicotina—a colorless liquid alkaloid, with an acrid, burning taste. It is one ofrepparttar 113219 most intense of all poisons, approaching in ita activityrepparttar 113220 strongest preparation of prussic acid.

The other important element procured fromrepparttar 113221 analysis of tobacco, is an oil called nicotianin, supposed to be "the juice of cursed hebanon" referred to in Hamlet. As this oily substance is also a very intense poison, differing essentially fromrepparttar 113222 alkaloid, and indeed it is supposed to be capable of acting on different vital organs. We have thus in tobacco two poisons—rather a remarkable fact in organic chemistry, where we find, generally, only one very active principle atrepparttar 113223 base of any particular production inrepparttar 113224 vegetable kingdom. It is indeed asserted by Landerer, that there is none of this deadly oil inrepparttar 113225 fresh leaves of tobacco; and Mr. Pereira remarks, thatrepparttar 113226 substance must be developed inrepparttar 113227 drying ofrepparttar 113228 leaves underrepparttar 113229 influence of air and water. The discovery; if true; may freerepparttar 113230 weed fromrepparttar 113231 charge of possessing a double poison; butrepparttar 113232 consequence is allrepparttar 113233 same torepparttar 113234 foreign consumer; who never seesrepparttar 113235 leaf in its green state.

It has been said thatrepparttar 113236 smoke of tobacco, as analyzed by Zeise and others, contains nothing ofrepparttar 113237 deadly alkaloid; and tobacco smokers have pleaded for less detrimental effects fromrepparttar 113238 pipe or cigar than fromrepparttar 113239 quid, but I fear their conclusion is not very tenable; forrepparttar 113240 detrimental oil, as we in fact see fromrepparttar 113241 pipe itself, is largely increased byrepparttar 113242 continued roasting and burning. We know; too, thatrepparttar 113243 old pipe is a favorite withrepparttar 113244 epicures;repparttar 113245 more oil by which it is blackenedrepparttar 113246 better becomesrepparttar 113247 instrument; till it attains perfection as a mass of clay soaked with poison; and dried, and soaked and dried a hundred times; so thatrepparttar 113248 entire matter is imbued withrepparttar 113249 absorption.

On man,repparttar 113250 physiological effects have been very minutely observed. I cannot do better than giverepparttar 113251 words of Mr.Pereira: "In small doses, tobacco causes a sensation of heat inrepparttar 113252 throat and sometimes a feeling of warmth atrepparttar 113253 stomach. These effects are, however, less obvious whenrepparttar 113254 remedy is taken in a liquid form, and largely diluted. By repetition, it usually operates as a diuretic, and less frequently as a laxative.

Accompanying these effects are often nausea, and a peculiar feeling, usually described as giddiness, scarcely according withrepparttar 113255 ordinary acceptation of this form. As dropsical swellings sometimes disappear underrepparttar 113256 operation of these doses, it has been inferred thatrepparttar 113257 remedy promotesrepparttar 113258 operation ofrepparttar 113259 absorbents. It occasionally acts as an anodyne, or more rarely promotes sleep.

General Characteristics of Tobacco

Portrait of a Barista

Written by Iulia Pascanu

Continued from page 1
3. A skilled barista,repparttar one you would like to have prepare your cup, has several years of experience. 4. A good barista carries out to near-perfection four operations: dosing, tamping, pulling and steaming. 5. A good barista knows that no. 4 is not enough and sometimes helpless. For example, tamping depends onrepparttar 113197 finesse ofrepparttar 113198 grind. The finerrepparttar 113199 grind,repparttar 113200 less importantrepparttar 113201 tamping. 6. A really good barista pays atention both torepparttar 113202 quality ofrepparttar 113203 coffee andrepparttar 113204 presentation. 7. The skilled barista is capable of performing more operations atrepparttar 113205 same time. 8. The barista you like interacts with his or her customers. 9. A good barista can manage to make a pretty good cup with less sophisticated appliances. Meanless to say,repparttar 113206 opposite is not true. 10. A good barista can make a flourishing business out of your modest old cofee-shop. Again,repparttar 113207 opposite in not true.

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