Written by Tobi Nagy

Continued from page 1

1.Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 2.Ozone (O3) 3.Methane (CH4) 4.CFC’s (Freons F11 & F12) 5.Water vapour (H2O) 6.Nitrous Oxides (NOx) 7.Ethane (CH3CH3) Where do they come from? •Most ofrepparttar Greenhouse gases have resulted fromrepparttar 143069 burning of fossil fuels. Everything from power stations, motor vehicles, refrigerators, and factory emissions •However, CO2 also results from deforestation which releases carbon locked inrepparttar 143070 soil when trees are felled. •CH4 is released from agriculture such as sheep, cattle and manures and places such as tips, sewage treatment plants and mines. Fossil Fuel contributions Due torepparttar 143071 nature of carbon to hydrogen ratio, different fossil fuels emit different levels of CO2.

Fossil FuelCarbon to Hydrogen Ratio CoalApprox. 1:1 Oil Approx. 1:2 Natural GasApprox. 1:4

Table 1: approximate carbon to Hydrogen ratio for various fossil fuels

•Hence combustion of coal produces twicerepparttar 143072 CO2 of natural gas CO2 Levels inrepparttar 143073 atmosphere

Pre Industrial Revolution270 ppm 1988345 ppm Today>355 ppm

Table 2: Levels of CO2 in ppm (parts per million)

•By measuring bubbles of gases trapped in polar ice, scientists have shown thatrepparttar 143074 amount of CO2 inrepparttar 143075 atmosphere prior torepparttar 143076 Industrial Revolution was about 270 parts per million (ppm). •A special monitoring station established atop fromrepparttar 143077 mountain Mauna Loa inrepparttar 143078 Hawaiian Islands showed that by 1957 CO2 levels inrepparttar 143079 atmosphere to 315 ppm, an increase of 17%. •By 1988, it had passed 345 ppm. A rise in 31 years of another 11%. An increased total of about 30% sincerepparttar 143080 start ofrepparttar 143081 Industrial Revolution. •Expert’s further forecast that CO2 will reach a level of 500-700 ppm byrepparttar 143082 year 2050, a doubling inside 200 years. Percentage Contribution of Greenhouse gases torepparttar 143083 Greenhouse Effect

CO255% CFC (F-11/F-12)*17% CH415% NO26% Other7%

Table 3: Percentage contribution of various Greenhouse Gases

* Please note that CFCs have been phased out sincerepparttar 143084 mid-nineties

To stablise atmospheric concentration of various gases at present day levels,repparttar 143085 following reductions would be required instantly

CO260% CH415-20% NO270-80% CFC (F-11)*70-75% CFC (F-12)*75-85%

Table 4: Reductions of Greenhouse Gases required to stablise atmospheric concentrations Remaining Scientific Uncertainty No argument that increasing concentrations of heat trapping gases will lead to an increase in average temperatures world-wide. However there is an argument aboutrepparttar 143086 extent in some cases of various positive and negative effects.

1.Uncertainty in effects of clouds Cumulus- negative cooling effect reflect incoming sunlight High Altitude clouds- positive effect by trapping infra-red radiation from earth •This uncertainty explains variation in temperatures from 1.5oC to 4.5oC. 2.Combustion of fossil fuels e.g. coal to sulphur dioxide (SO2) has cooling effect. 3.Variations in sun’s output are responsible for temperature increases. 4.Ocean levels will naturally increase due to thermal expansion of surface ocean water and melting of glaciers. •An increase in temperature will lead to increased precipitation, which will increase ice thickness at poles, thus reducing sea level. 5.Natural regional climatic changes, such as deforestation and bushfires, as opposed to global changes. Policies for Greenhouse Emission Reduction Problems 1.Different countries emit vastly different CO2 levels per capita 2.Countries have very different per capita incomes 3.Very difficult to work outrepparttar 143087 warming potential for each Greenhouse Gas in terms of CO2 equivalent. 4.Emissions of gases from various countries are not known with certainty Policies 1.Each country can reduce byrepparttar 143088 same percentage •Existing emission levels are uneven per capita are taken as standard •Poor countries want to increase fossil fuel usage

2.Each country getsrepparttar 143089 same emission quotas on a per capita basis. These countries sell quotas to rich countries.

3.Rich countries could reduce emissions by 20% with no reductions required by poor countries.

•Not all rich countries have high emissions of CO2, and not all poor countries are low emitters because of deforestation.

4.Assume Australia which is high income and high Greenhouse Gas emitter per capita is required to reduce emissions by 20%. •How should it be reduced? By: a)each state? b)each industry section? Some methods of reducing CO2 emissions that have negative impact on our lives •Better managing of natural resource; •Reducing waste in manufacturing; •Find alternative end uses for waste (recycle and reuse); •Buying less junks and goods that we don’t need (In Australia, estimated to be worth AUD$10 billion per annum); •Buying quality goods that don’t need replacing as often; •Recycling more (e.g. it takes about 8 times more energy to convert bauxite to aluminium than it does to recycle it) •Reduced use of motor vehicles; •Increased use of public transport; •More efficient lighting, heating and cooling; •Better insulation; •Less reliance on electricity and electrical goods and machines; •More efficient electrical appliances; •More efficient cars; •Alternative technologies from natural sources such as wind, thermal and tidal; •Converting landfills and sewage plants into methane plants; •Bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, methanol and ethanol production from organic sources •Reduce large scale deforestation and land clearing; •Increase tree planting; •More efficient agriculture including No till and Conservation agriculture methods; •Organic farming.

Tobi Nagy runs SDS Consulting which is a small business enterprise development practice which focuses on developing enterprises with sustainable business principles and practices. His website can be viewed at

Customer service 101- What You Absolutely Need to Know

Written by Samaira kapoor

Continued from page 1

Training is necessary in order to maintain good customer service and to keep up withrepparttar ever-changing trends ofrepparttar 143068 service industry while adding torepparttar 143069 basic building blocks of friendly and efficient customer service. Despite all these efforts, it is still argued that many organizations are not good at service and that large organizations in particular are frustrating forrepparttar 143070 customer to deal with.

Every company should commit to provide its customers with a high standard of service. Inrepparttar 143071 event of not meeting customer’s expectations, company should like to hear from customers. By letting company know when customers are dissatisfied with company service, customer gives companyrepparttar 143072 opportunity to resolve their particular issue and to improve company service forrepparttar 143073 benefit of allrepparttar 143074 customers. So to grow faster companies need to manage their customers efficiently.

Samaira kapoor writes about Customer service topics. Learn more at .

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