Fall Bird Migration

Written by Gayle Olson


Continued from page 1

Birds use fat as fuel for their journey. It is important that they have enough to eat before they leave so they are able to store enough fat forrepparttar long distance they must travel. Some birds make many stops, filling up with enough food to make it torepparttar 127714 next stage of their journey.

Birds face many hazards during migration. Some may get blown off course or get caught in a storm. Some birds don't have enough food or fat stored to completerepparttar 127715 trip. Hunters claim thousands of ducks and geese each year during fall hunting season. Changes in forestry, agriculture and urban expansion are difficult for birds. These changes affectrepparttar 127716 habitats of birds and other wildlife. Migrating birds depend onrepparttar 127717 forests and wetlands and sometimes cannot adapt torepparttar 127718 changes.

Related Internet Resources:

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New Generation of Anodizing

Written by Jerry L. Patel and Nannaji Saka, Ph.D.


Continued from page 1

Much asrepparttar traditional process,repparttar 127713 Microplasmic process is an electrochemical process, but there endsrepparttar 127714 similarity. The Microplasmic process is radically different fromrepparttar 127715 traditional anodizing processes in many respects. The distinguishing features ofrepparttar 127716 process may be summarized as follows.

The process employs alkaline electrolytes whose composition is extremely critical torepparttar 127717 coating rate andrepparttar 127718 properties ofrepparttar 127719 anodic film that is formed. The pH ofrepparttar 127720 electrolyte is inrepparttar 127721 range 8 -12 and is thus environmentally sound. The process employs Alternating Currents at high voltage and high current. Because ofrepparttar 127722 high voltage, a microplasma surroundsrepparttar 127723 electrodes andrepparttar 127724 oxygen ions produced inrepparttar 127725 plasma diffuse throughrepparttar 127726 anodic film intorepparttar 127727 aluminum substrate to react and form more anodic film. The high voltage and high current allowrepparttar 127728 production of anodic films ofrepparttar 127729 same thickness as that ofrepparttar 127730 traditional process in a fraction ofrepparttar 127731 time. Becauserepparttar 127732 voltages are higher thanrepparttar 127733 breakdown voltage ofrepparttar 127734 film formed, open channels are not necessary for sustainingrepparttar 127735 process and hence dense thick layers of nonporous film can be readily formed. Becauserepparttar 127736 process employs AC power,repparttar 127737 productivity is increased. The power from an electrical utility supply can be used with proper controls torepparttar 127738 electrochemical tank thus makingrepparttar 127739 process less capital intensive. There is no need for power rectification and waveform smoothing. The temperature ofrepparttar 127740 electrolytic bath need not be precisely maintained. Indeed, successful coatings can be obtained even ifrepparttar 127741 temperature excursions are as much as 10-20 oC, further simplifyingrepparttar 127742 process. The electrolytic composition itself is quite variable for different types of coatings. Because ofrepparttar 127743 high density ofrepparttar 127744 coating, practically there is no change inrepparttar 127745 dimension ofrepparttar 127746 anodized part, and a completely finished part can be coated without major post processing finishing operations. The Microplasmic Process, however, produces an outer soft coating of about 15% that may be buffed off;repparttar 127747 remaining inner layer, is an extremely hard ceramic layer. Above all, unlike withrepparttar 127748 traditional anodization process, aluminum alloy parts of any composition can be successfully anodized byrepparttar 127749 Microplasmic Process. Even more importantly, a variety of ceramic "alloy" coatings, such as Al2O3.SiO2, Al2O3.MgO, Al2O3..CaO etc. can only be produced byrepparttar 127750 Microplasmic Process. The Microplasmic Process is also suited for a hard coating inside surface of a part i.e. cylindrical, conical or spherical hollow parts. Many coating processes inrepparttar 127751 market, like CVD, PVD, IVD, PEPVD, Sputtering, Thermal Spraying etc. are unable to coat inside surface of a long part.

4.0 Applications

Becauserepparttar 127752 microplasmic process produces a thick, well bonded ceramic coating on a variety of reactive light metal alloys, it can be used for a broad range of applications. The primary application could berepparttar 127753 replacement of heavier metallic alloys orrepparttar 127754 more expensive composite materials required byrepparttar 127755 aerospace and automotive industries by light metals (e.g., Al, Ti, Mg, and their alloys) coated byrepparttar 127756 Microplasmic Process. Other applications can be divided intorepparttar 127757 following categories: Chemical, Mechanical, Thermal, Electrical and Electronics, and combinations of these.

Chemical: The ceramic coating can resist both aqueous and moderately high temperature and is resistant to strong acids and bases. Thus it can be used in chemical, and food processing industries. Mechanical: The hardness ofrepparttar 127758 film is over 1300 kg/mm2 and thusrepparttar 127759 film can be used to resist sliding, abrasive and erosive wear. In additionrepparttar 127760 friction coefficient is low and thus can be used in marginally lubricated systems. Thermal: The thermal conductivity ofrepparttar 127761 anodic film is much less than of metals. Thus anodized parts can be used to maintain uniform distribution of temperature and resist thermal shock. Electrical and Electronic: The dielectric breakdown strength ofrepparttar 127762 Microplasmic film is comparable to that of alpha Al2O3 and hence can be used as an insulating film on electrical and electronic components.

Additionally,repparttar 127763 Microplasmic Process is also well suited for hard coating interior surfaces (such as those of hollow cylindrical and conical parts), recesses, blind holes, threaded sections, and so on.

Many coating processes inrepparttar 127764 market, such as Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD), Plasma Enhanced Physical Vapor Deposition (PEPVD), Sputtering, Thermal Spraying, etc. are unable to coatrepparttar 127765 inside surface of a long part. Thus, where appropriate these expensive coating processes can be readily replaced byrepparttar 127766 Microplasmic Process.

Microplasmic Corporation

Contact Information: Microplasmic Corporation 17 Esquire Drive Peabody, MA, USA Tel (978) 531-9145 Fax (978) 531-3671 Email: info@microplasmic.com Company Website http://www.microplasmic.com/ Public Relations Website http://www.microarcanodizing.com/

Jerry Patel: BS degree Mechanical Engineering - Fairleigh Dickinson University MS degree Engineering Management - Northeastern University Nannaji Saka, Ph.D: BS - Mechanical Engineering - Andhra University in India MS - Metallurgical Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology PH.D - Materials Engineering from - Department of Materials Science and Engineering at MIT.


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