Earthquakes and Tsunamis

Written by Sam Vaknin

Continued from page 1

Some earthquakes produce low-pitch sounds and light effects (flashes, streamers, and balls). Water in lakes and reservoirs oscillate causing flooding (a phenomenon called seiche). Seiches were observed in Scotland and Sweden followingrepparttar Lisbon quake of 1755. Similarly,repparttar 110087 Alaskan tremor in 1964 produced seiches in Texas and throughoutrepparttar 110088 southwestern parts ofrepparttar 110089 United States.

Measuringrepparttar 110090 magnitude of earthquakes is more a fine art than an exact science.

Charles Richter developed his eponymous logarithmic scale in 1935. It measuresrepparttar 110091 amplitude (the height) of seismic surface waves. Each unit represents a tenfold increase inrepparttar 110092 energy released byrepparttar 110093 tremor. An earthquake of magnitude 9 is, therefore, 1000 stronger than a tremor of magnitude 6. The Kobe earthquake measured 6.8 onrepparttar 110094 Richter scale,repparttar 110095 San Francisco tremor of 1906 was 8.3 (as wasrepparttar 110096 earthquake inrepparttar 110097 Mississippi Valley in 1811), and bothrepparttar 110098 Alaskan quake of 1964 andrepparttar 110099 South Asian underwater temblor of 2004 were around 9 (9.2 in Alaska to be precise)

The Richter scale is used mainly byrepparttar 110100 media. Professional seismologists userepparttar 110101 Moment Magnitude Scale (MMS) which takes into accountrepparttar 110102 properties ofrepparttar 110103 area andrepparttar 110104 amount of slippage (displacement). It capturesrepparttar 110105 total energy ofrepparttar 110106 tremor. The Kobe earthquake measured 7 onrepparttar 110107 MMS,repparttar 110108 San Francisco tremor of 1906 was 7.6, andrepparttar 110109 Alaskan quake of 1964 was 9.

Then there isrepparttar 110110 still-used 12-grade Modified Mercalli Scale (adapted in 1931 by American seismologists H. O. Wood and Frank Neumann fromrepparttar 110111 original Mercalli scale, proposed in 1902 Italian seismologist Giuseppe Mercalli). It measuresrepparttar 110112 impact that an earthquake has onrepparttar 110113 natural and man-made environment to gauge its magnitude. The Europeans have a similar 12-grade scale, called MSK.

Seaquakes are earthquakes that start on land and then travel intorepparttar 110114 sea atrepparttar 110115 speed of sound (about 1.5 kilometers per second).

Quakes occur even onrepparttar 110116 moon which has no plates, volcanic activities, or ocean trenches. The five seismograph stations ofrepparttar 110117 Passive Seismic Experiment set up between 1969 and 1977 as part ofrepparttar 110118 United States Apollo Program detected up to 3,000 moonquakes every year. Mars, onrepparttar 110119 other hand, seems not to have quakes at all!

Some notable earthquakes in history:

Lisbon, November 1, 1755, 09:40 AM (All Saints Day)

Property damage: 12,000 houses, fire raged for 6 days

Casualties: 60,000 dead

Felt as far as: Algiers (1100 kilometers torepparttar 110120 east)

Side effects: tsunami 20 meters high (at Cadiz) to 6 meters high (at Lisbon). Traveled to Martinique (6100 kilometers) in 10 hours and rose to 4 meters when it struckrepparttar 110121 shore.

New Madrid, Missouri, USA - December 16, 1811, January 23 and February 7, 1812

Felt as far as: Louisville, Kentucky (300 kilometers away); Cincinnati, Ohio (600 km. away); Canada; Gulf Coast.

Side effects: 1874 aftershocks; The tremor affected 100,000 square kilometers. An area of 240X60 kilometers sank by 1-3 meters and was flooded as a nearby river rushed in.

San Francisco, April 18, 1906, 05:12 AM

Property damage: Fire destroyedrepparttar 110122 business district of San Francisco. Cities alongrepparttar 110123 fault (e.g., San Jose, Salinas, and Santa Rosa) obliterated.

Casualties: 700 dead

Felt as far as: Los Angeles inrepparttar 110124 south and Coos Bay, Oregon, torepparttar 110125 north

Side effects: At least a 430 kilometers fault slippage (break).

Tokyo–Yokohama, September 1, 1923

Property damage: Fifty four percent of brick buildings and one tenth of other, reinforced, structures collapsed. Hundreds of thousands of houses crumbled or burned.

Casualties: 140,000 dead

Felt as far as: Los Angeles inrepparttar 110126 south and Coos Bay, Oregon, torepparttar 110127 north

Side effects: Twelve-meter high tsunami crashed against Atami onrepparttar 110128 Sagami Gulf, destroyed 155 houses and killed 60 people.

Chile, 1960

Property damage: Pegged at millions of US dollars.

Casualties: 5700 killed and 3000 injured.

Felt as far as: Los Angeles inrepparttar 110129 south and Coos Bay, Oregon, torepparttar 110130 north

Side effects: Seismic sea waves (tsunamis) struck Hawaii, Japan, andrepparttar 110131 Pacific coast ofrepparttar 110132 United States.

Alaska, March 27, 1964

Casualties: 131 dead

Side effects: Felt over an area of 1,300,000 square kilometers and tilted an area of more than 120,000 square kilometers. Land was thrust up by as much as 25 meters and sank by up to 2.5 meters. Numerous tsunamis affected locales as far as Crescent City, California. The fault extended for 1000 kilometers and there were tens of thousands of aftershocks.

Tang-shan, China, July 28, 1976

Property damage: Entire city razed torepparttar 110133 ground.

Casualties: 240,000 killed and half a million injured.

Mexico, September 19, 1985, 07:18 AM

Property damage: Most buildings in Mexico City - 400 kilometers fromrepparttar 110134 epicenter - damaged extensively.

Casualties: 10,000 killed.

Felt as far as: Los Angeles inrepparttar 110135 south and Coos Bay, Oregon, torepparttar 110136 north

Side effects: Seismic sea waves (tsunamis) struck Hawaii, Japan, andrepparttar 110137 Pacific coast ofrepparttar 110138 United States.

Sam Vaknin ( ) is the author of Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain - How the West Lost the East. He served as a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, and eBookWeb , and Bellaonline, and as a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent. He is the the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory and Suite101.

Use Natural Cleaners to remove the Toxic Risk from your home

Written by Chris Western

Continued from page 1

The Veriuni Store offers a full range of such products. Please feel free to visit and browse:-

Maybe you live in a nice house smelling of alpine meadows with a sparkling bathroom, lovely clean and polished surfaces.

What if someone were to come into your lovely shining home and mix up a cocktail of unknown chemicals for you and your family to distribute aroundrepparttar house. Would you allow it? Of course not. You wouldn’t want potentially poisonous chemicals around your house to pose a risk of contamination torepparttar 110086 air you breath or to what your family eat & drink.

Disturbingly however, they may already be there.

You may think thatrepparttar 110087 ingredients in household products are safe having been tested byrepparttar 110088 authorities and cleared for use because they are known to pose no threat. Sadly, nothing could be further fromrepparttar 110089 truth.

In reality many hazardous chemicals are added to consumer goods. Some of these are known to be hazardous, but current legislation allows for their continued use. This is becauserepparttar 110090 regulations work on ‘safe limits’ of exposure for individual products. The weaknesses of this approach are that they do not add up accumulated doses from multiple sources of exposure, and neither do they take into accountrepparttar 110091 effect on children and unborn infants,repparttar 110092 dosages allowed being based on adult tolerance levels.

Consider some of these common types of household cleaning product and what threat they may carry.

Air Fresheners

Many of these products contain formaldehyde and phenol. The former is a known carcinogen andrepparttar 110093 later can cause skin irritation.

Antibacterial Cleaners

May contain triclosan, which has been connected to liver damage and is readily absorbed throughrepparttar 110094 skin

Carpet and upholstery shampoo

Many contain perchlorethane, which is a carcinogen which damagesrepparttar 110095 liver, kidneys and central nervous system. Ammonium hydroxide may also be present which is a corrosive compound, extremely irritating torepparttar 110096 eyes, skin and respiratory system.

Dishwasher detergents

Studies have shown these to berepparttar 110097 foremost cause of home poisoning incidents. Most products containrepparttar 110098 dry form of chlorine. Scientists and engineers do not handle chlorine without protective clothing. It is extremely dangerous and can very easily be lethal. Indeed, it wasrepparttar 110099 first agent to be used in World War One as a chemical warfare agent.

Dishwashing liquids are labelled ‘harmful if swallowed’ yet it is used to wash your dishes. Can we be certain that no residues are left on your crockery to be picked up by your food?

Furniture polish

Commonly contain nitrobenzene, which is highly toxic and easily absorbed throughrepparttar 110100 skin. Petroleum distillates may also be present, which are highly flammable and have been linked to skin & lung cancer.

Laundry products.

These present a veritable cocktail of chemicals, including ammonia, phosphourous, naphthalene & phenol along with numerous others. They can all cause irritation torepparttar 110101 skin, allergies and sinus problems. Any residue left in your clothes can be absorbed into your body throughrepparttar 110102 skin.

Oven cleaner

These arerepparttar 110103 most powerful toxic products that you can introduce into your home. They contain ammonia and other chemicals which can irritaterepparttar 110104 skin, and produce fumes which can attackrepparttar 110105 respiratory system. Any residue left in your oven may be intensified when you next use it.

Toilet cleaner

These usually contain hydrochloric acid which is highly corrosive,repparttar 110106 eyes and skin being particularly vulnerable to attack, and known to be harmful torepparttar 110107 liver and kidneys. If mixed with other chemical products, chlorine can be produced which can be fatal in high concentrations.

The above is a brief overview ofrepparttar 110108 possible risks, and it must be stressed thatrepparttar 110109 effects noted forrepparttar 110110 individual chemicals are for high levels of exposure. However,repparttar 110111 point being made by many agencies such as Greenpeace is thatrepparttar 110112 level of exposure inrepparttar 110113 home is unknown and unmonitored.

What can you do as a householder to minimiserepparttar 110114 risk to yourself and your family?

The easiest way to avoidrepparttar 110115 risk is to avoidrepparttar 110116 products. Governments are not going to outlawrepparttar 110117 chemicals, andrepparttar 110118 manufacturers are not going to replace them unless they are forced to do so, either by regulation or by consumer pressure.

There are a growing number of manufacturers who are producing safe products based on natural ingredients that do not presentrepparttar 110119 same threats asrepparttar 110120 more established and heavily promoted products.

The Veriuni Store offers a full range of such products. Please feel free to visit and browse:-

Weigh uprepparttar 110121 risks and benefits to your home and its occupants and make your decision.

For general advice on this and other responsible consumer matters, visit

Other information on this and other consumer related ecological matters can be found at :-

Chris Western is an affiliate of SFI, one of the largest & most successful schemes on the internet.

The full range of SFI goods and business opportunities can be found at :-

All of the home businesses being run by Chris Western can be viewed at:-

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