Common Criteria

Written by Robert Elam

Continued from page 1

Common Criteria is essential particularly in these times of heightened Information security awareness. The CC Certification is verification thatrepparttar operating system has met a specific level of security. Consumers are more likely to purchase an operating system that is internationally accredited than one with just a good reputation.

This certification took Microsoft three years and millions of dollars to attain. Very few companies haverepparttar 139958 time, money and resources to reach this level security. According to Microsoft they obtainedrepparttar 139959 Common Criteria “because its evaluation and certification process helps consumers make informed security decisions (Microsoft).”

Works Cited

Dinopolis. Common Criteria History. 11 May 2001.

NIAP. Common Criteria Evaluation Verification Scheme.

Electronic Privacy Center. Computer Security Act of 1987.

Microsoft. Windows 2000 achievesrepparttar 139960 Common Criteria Certificate. 29 Oct 2002. Radium. The Rainbow Series Library. 28 June 2000.

Rob Elam has authors the eLamb ★ Computer security blog at He has been doing security for the Department of the Defence for 10 years and is currently a System Security Engineer in Colorado.

Seecrets On Security: A Gentle Introduction To Cryptography

Written by Stan Seecrets

Continued from page 1

To digress a bit, have you ever wondered why you had to study prime numbers in school? I am sure most mathematics teachers do not know this answer. Answer: A subbranch called public-key cryptography which uses prime numbers especially for encrypting e-mails. Over there, they are talking of even bigger numbers like 2048, 4096, 8192 bits.)

When we want to encrypt something, we need to use a cipher. A cipher is just an algorithm similar to a recipe for baking a cake. It has precise, unambiguous steps. To carry outrepparttar encryption process, you need a key (some called it passphrase). A good practice in cryptography needsrepparttar 139957 key used by a cipher must be of high entropy to be effective.

Data Encryption Standard (DES), introduced as a standard inrepparttar 139958 late 1970's, wasrepparttar 139959 most commonly used cipher inrepparttar 139960 1980's and early 1990's. It uses a 56-bit key. It was broken inrepparttar 139961 late 1990’s with specialized computers costing about US$250,000 in 56 hours. With today's (2005) hardware, it is possible to crack within a day.

Subsequently, Triple-DES superseded DES asrepparttar 139962 logical way to preserve compatibility with earlier investments by big corporations (mainly banks). It uses two 56-bit key using three steps:-

1. Encrypt with Key 1. 2. Decrypt with Key 2. 3. Encrypt with Key 1.

The effective key length used is only 112-bits (equivalent to 34 digits). The key is any number between 0 and 5192296858534827628530496329220095. Some modifyrepparttar 139963 last process using Key 3, making it more effective at 168-bit keys.

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was adopted as a standard byrepparttar 139964 National Institute of Standards

The author, Stan Seecrets, is a veteran software developer with 25 years experience at ( which specializes in protecting digital assets. This site provides quality software priced like books, free-reprint articles on stock charts and computer security, free downloads. © Copyright 2005, Stan Seecrets. All rights reserved.

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