Cartoon Animation - An Evolving Art Form

Written by Jake Gorst

Continued from page 1

The production of "TVs" came to a stop atrepparttar end of 1941, when aluminum (required in TV production atrepparttar 124164 time) was rationed for war purposes. Afterrepparttar 124165 war,repparttar 124166 TV manufacturing business exploded. In 1946, eight thousand TVs were produced. Inrepparttar 124167 next year, over 38 million sets were sold inrepparttar 124168 United States.

The early days of commercial television created a problem forrepparttar 124169 advertising and publishing industry. Large corporations were not spending their money on print advertising, but opting instead to experiment with TV.

Animation lended itself to this new medium. A live person talking about a product worked, but a cute little animated character bouncing aroundrepparttar 124170 screen commanded attention! In 1949, Television Magazine indicated that four ofrepparttar 124171 six most popular television ads were animated.

In 1957, MGM decided to get out ofrepparttar 124172 animation business. Bill Hanna and Joe Barbera, creators ofrepparttar 124173 successful Tom and Jerry theatrical cartoons, found themselves out of work. The two formed their own company and immediately began work on a made-for-television animated series called Ruff and Reddy. This series remained onrepparttar 124174 air until 1964, one hundred episodes later.

Withrepparttar 124175 release of The Flintstones in 1960,repparttar 124176 Hanna-Barbera studio becamerepparttar 124177 premier production house for television animation. Acquired by cable mogul Ted Turner (founder ofrepparttar 124178 Cartoon Network) in 1991 and then merged into Time-Warner in 1996, Hanna-Barbera cartoons are experiencing a new-found popularity.

Many other animation companies have produced television programming overrepparttar 124179 years. The Walt Disney Company, for example, has produced several programs, from animated segments ofrepparttar 124180 Mickey Mouse Club (1955-59) to series such as PB&J Otter onrepparttar 124181 Disney cable network. The Nickelodeon network regularly produces several animated programs for children. The Fox and Comedy Central networks have promoted animated cartoons geared toward an adult demographic, such as The Simpsons, The Critic and South Park.

Animation andrepparttar 124182 Internet

The Internet, as it is currently known, is still a new medium. In 1993, a group of students atrepparttar 124183 National Center for Supercomputer Applications (NCSA) developed a computer program called "Mosaic." This program, known as a "browser," allowed text and graphics to be transferred via telephone lines from one computer to another and be assembled in a predesigned layout on a computer monitor. Mosaic?s page layout ability was very limited and was not a forum for any type of animation, however. Recognizingrepparttar 124184 limitations,repparttar 124185 team of graduate students and trainee programmers who createdrepparttar 124186 software left NSCA to form a new company: Netscape Communications.

In October 1995, Netscape released a new browser known as "Netscape Navigator 2.0." This new browser hadrepparttar 124187 ability to display small animated graphics known as "animated gif files." These animations could be inserted on a Web page easily, but were limited in scope. Slow data transfer over telephone lines made it impossible to animate anything other than a few seconds of looped motion.

In 1996, Macromedia, Inc. developed a program called Flash. Macromedia Flash created animations based on vector information - mathematical instructions that are much smaller in file size than animated gif files, allowing longer animations. This program has revolutionizedrepparttar 124188 art form. Flash is generally accepted asrepparttar 124189 only truly effective way of delivering animated entertainment online. Many companies are now producing made-for-Internet cartoons.

One notable Internet cartoon series is "The Pink Donkey and The Fly," by a New York based design house called Funny Garbage. The Pink Donkey series featuresrepparttar 124190 artwork of Gary Panter, best known for creatingrepparttar 124191 designs and characters forrepparttar 124192 children?s television program Pee-Wee?s Playhouse. Some of Funny Garbage?s work can be viewed at

Other notable series includerepparttar 124193 Bulbo Toons by MishMash Media ( and Capital Ill by JibJab (

Macromedia Flash animation is also being used to enhance e-business Web sites. One Long Island based Internet design and marketing firm, Exploded View, is dedicated torepparttar 124194 integration of new technologies inrepparttar 124195 Internet marketplace. "No matter what technology is used in a Web site, there are basic psychological design principles that must be adhered to," said Jake Gorst, Exploded View President. "Animation can be a great enhancement to an e-business site if it does not distract fromrepparttar 124196 customer buying experience."

These "psychological principles" includerepparttar 124197 proper use of color and vocabulary, object placement and navigation. For example, a Web site that features a large corporate logo and predominantly displays corporate news information could be frustrating to a customer looking for products. Ifrepparttar 124198 products are not clearly visible, sales will be low. Ifrepparttar 124199 Web site features a color that is not popular withrepparttar 124200 target audience (due to religious, political or other reasons), viewer attention will be minimal.

"Once these principles are in place, animations can be added that complimentrepparttar 124201 overall message ofrepparttar 124202 site," says Gorst. "Care must be given not to create a distraction, however."

Richie Saccente of Troll Studios (http:/, an Exploded View customer, is very excited aboutrepparttar 124203 integration of animation in his company?s Web site. "We are using a small troll-like character to guide viewers through our site," says Saccente. "To my knowledge this isrepparttar 124204 first time Internet animation has been used in conjunction with psychology in this manner. I love our site."

In this day and age,repparttar 124205 animation industry is so vast that a synopsis of every possible application could not be made in a single article. In addition to Internet applications, experiments in animation are also taking place in video games and virtual reality technology. What doesrepparttar 124206 future hold for this art form? Only time will tell, but forrepparttar 124207 artist involved inrepparttar 124208 animation world, this is a good time to be alive.

Jake Gorst is a writer, film maker, and president of Exploded View (, a new media advertising and design company. He also is a frequent contributor to various trade publications on topics related to Web site and architectural design psychology and trends. Previously, Gorst served as Vice President and Chief Creative Officer for E-Media Publishing, Ltd. and as an Internet content developer for Citibank and other Long Island based corporations.

Shirley Temple Stories

Written by Stephen Schochet

Continued from page 1

Shirley's career was guided largely by her over protective mother Gertrude who would grab her byrepparttar shoulders before each scene and say," Sparkle Shirley, sparkle." Zanuck frustrated Mrs. Temple by not allowing Shirley to play more varied parts (not realizing she was a child, George Bernard Shaw offered herrepparttar 124163 lead in his stage version of Caesar and Cleopatra). Zanuck felt Shirley's spunky movie character had to be repeated for her to stay popular. Gertrude would demand thatrepparttar 124164 studio cut any scene where another child looked better than her daughter. This caused great distress for other parents who retaliated by starting a rumor that Shirley was actually a midget.

Shirley's conservative banker father George had a difficult time dealing withrepparttar 124165 trappings of fame. One time he requested a meeting with Zanuck. "Mr. Zanuck, I want your advice about this fan mail I've been getting. I haven't shown them to Gertrude and I'm tempted." Zanuck was startled to read letters from women acrossrepparttar 124166 country wishing for George to father their children. Zanuck, who was famous for his own womanizing ways gave simple advice,"If you can't promise them a little girl, stay loyal to your wife."

Zanuck kept spies to inform him ofrepparttar 124167 child's activities atrepparttar 124168 studio. One time he interrupted a meeting with John Steinbeck to tend to her after hearing she had fallen and broke a tooth. On another occasion she was visited by HG Wells. Shirley was polite and afterrepparttar 124169 famous author left,repparttar 124170 little moppet was told she had just metrepparttar 124171 most important man inrepparttar 124172 world. "Uh uh. President Roosevelt isrepparttar 124173 most important man. And Governor Merriam is second." Later Zanuck heard this report while furiously puffing on a cigar. "Who did she say is third?"

No matter how much Zanuck hid it on screen Shirley aged. When World War II broke out movie goers turned away from sentiment. Twentieth Century Fox began to make weightier films like Steinbeck's The Grapes Of Wrath (1940). Shirley was declared overrepparttar 124174 hill atrepparttar 124175 age of ten. As a teen she became more independent. Without her mother to push her she never achievedrepparttar 124176 same acting success as an adolescent that she had as a child. But her grit and determination representedrepparttar 124177 American spirit torepparttar 124178 world. A false report of her death in Hirohito's Japan in 1943 set off a wild celebration inrepparttar 124179 streets.

Stephen Schochet is the author and narrator of the audiobooks "Fascinating Walt Disney" and "Tales Of Hollywood". The Saint Louis Post Dispatch says," these two elaborate productions are exceptionally entertaining." Hear realaudio samples of these great, unique gifts at

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