Can your sundial really tell the time?

Written by Hugh Harris-Evans

Continued from page 1

A number of sundial trails have been established. A good example isrepparttar Thames Sundial Trail in London, England. This site lists a number of other trails in countries all overrepparttar 113431 world but only two inrepparttar 113432 United States. Howeverrepparttar 113433 North American Sundial Society has a complete list on its website.

Two rather different designs are shown here. The first, which is commonly referred to as a Human Sundial, usesrepparttar 113434 person's shadow to indicaterepparttar 113435 time. By standing inrepparttar 113436 appropriate box forrepparttar 113437 daterepparttar 113438 shadow will showrepparttar 113439 correct time. The second is a Digital Sundial which sounds like a contradiction in terms but in reality is just a rather clever design.

Many sundials have a motto inscribed onrepparttar 113440 face. Often these are rather serious in tone and ofrepparttar 113441 "Tempus fugit" variety but you also find some written in a lighter vein. Here are a few of my favourites:

The shadow of my finger cast Dividesrepparttar 113442 future fromrepparttar 113443 past

The clockrepparttar 113444 time may wrongly tell, I never ifrepparttar 113445 sun shines well

I stand amidrepparttar 113446 summer flowers To tellrepparttar 113447 passage ofrepparttar 113448 hours

And finally again from Hilaire Belloc:

I am a sundial, turnedrepparttar 113449 wrong way round. I cost my foolish mistress fifty pounds!

Hugh Harris-Evans is the owner of The Garden Supplies Advisor where you will find further articles, gardening tips and product reviews.

Starting Vegetable Garden Seeds & Plants Indoors

Written by David Selman,

Continued from page 1

Hardening Plants Plants should be gradually hardened, or toughened, for 2 weeks before planting inrepparttar open garden. This is done by slowing down their rate of growth to prepare them to withstand such conditions as chilling, drying winds, shortage of water, or high temperatures. Cabbage, lettuce, onion, and many other plants can be hardened to withstand frost; others, such as tomatoes and peppers cannot. Withholding water and loweringrepparttar 113430 temperature arerepparttar 113431 best ways to harden a plant. This may be done in a glass or plastic coldframe. About 10 days before being planted inrepparttar 113432 open ground,repparttar 113433 young plants in beds or flats are blocked out with a large knife. Blocking, or cuttingrepparttar 113434 roots, causes new roots to form quickly nearrepparttar 113435 plants, making recovery from transplanting inrepparttar 113436 open easier. Blocking also makes it easier to removerepparttar 113437 plants fromrepparttar 113438 bed or flat with minimum injury. Southern-Grown Plants Vegetable plants grown outdoors inrepparttar 113439 South are shipped to all parts ofrepparttar 113440 country. They are grown cheaply and usually withstand shipment and resetting very well. They may not always be as good as home-grown plants, but they saverepparttar 113441 trouble of starting them inrepparttar 113442 house or in a hot-bed. Plants of beets, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, onions, peppers, and tomatoes are extensively grown and shipped; tomato, cabbage, and onion plants make uprepparttar 113443 bulk ofrepparttar 113444 shipments. The plants are usually wrapped in bundles of 50 each and shipped by either mail or express. Tomato and pepper plants are packed with a little damp moss aroundrepparttar 113445 roots, but onion and cabbage plants are usually packed with bare roots. Shipments involving large numbers of bundles are packed in ventilated hampers or slatted crates and usually are sent by motor-truck or rail express. Shipments by air mail and air express are increasing. The disadvantages of using southern-grown plants arerepparttar 113446 occasional delays in obtaining them andrepparttar 113447 possibility of transmitting such diseases asrepparttar 113448 wilt disease ofrepparttar 113449 tomato, black rot of cabbage, and disorders caused by nematodes. State-certified plants that have been carefully inspected and found as free of these troubles as can be reasonably determined are available. Southern-grown plants are now offered for sale by most northern seedsmen, by mail-order houses, and often by local hardware and supply houses.

Transplanting The term "transplanting" means shifting of a plant from one soil or culture medium to another. It may refer torepparttar 113450 shifting of small seedlings fromrepparttar 113451 seedbed to other containers whererepparttar 113452 plants will have more space for growth, or it may meanrepparttar 113453 setting of plants inrepparttar 113454 garden row where they are to develop forrepparttar 113455 crop period. Contrary to general belief, transplanting does not in itself stimulaterepparttar 113456 plant or make it grow better; actually growth is temporarily checked, butrepparttar 113457 plant is usually given more space in which to grow. Every effort should be made during transplanting to interruptrepparttar 113458 growth ofrepparttar 113459 plant as little as possible.

Plants started in seed flats, flowerpots, and other containers inrepparttar 113460 house,repparttar 113461 hotbed,repparttar 113462 greenhouse, or elsewhere should be shifted as soon as they can be handled to boxes, flowerpots, plant bands, or other containers where they will have more room to develop. If shifted to flats or similar containers,repparttar 113463 plants should be spaced 2 or more inches apart. This provides room for growth untilrepparttar 113464 plants can be moved to their permanent place inrepparttar 113465 garden. Most gardeners prefer to place seedlings singly in flowerpots, paper cups withrepparttar 113466 bottoms pierced for drainage, plant bands, berry boxes, or other containers. Whenrepparttar 113467 plants are set inrepparttar 113468 garden,repparttar 113469 containers are carefully removed. Soil for transplanting should be fertile, usually a mixture of rich topsoil and garden compost, with a very light addition of a commercial garden fertilizer.

Moisteningrepparttar 113470 seedbed before removingrepparttar 113471 seedlings and care in lifting and separatingrepparttar 113472 delicate plants make it possible to shift them with little damage torepparttar 113473 root system and with only minor checks to their growth. Plants grown singly in separate containers can be moved torepparttar 113474 garden with almost no disturbance torepparttar 113475 root system, especially those that are hardened for a week or two before being set outdoors. Plants being hardened should be watered sparingly, but just before they are set out, they should be given a thorough soaking. Plants grown inrepparttar 113476 hotbed or greenhouse without being shifted fromrepparttar 113477 seedbed to provide more room and those shipped fromrepparttar 113478 South usually have very little soil adhering torepparttar 113479 roots when they are set inrepparttar 113480 garden. Such plants may require special care if transplanting conditions are not ideal; otherwise, they will die or at least suffer a severe shock that will greatly retard their development. The roots of these plants should be kept covered and not allowed to dry out. Dippingrepparttar 113481 roots in a mixture of clay and water helps greatly in bridgingrepparttar 113482 critical transplanting period. Planting whenrepparttar 113483 soil is moist also helps. Pouring a half pint to a pint of water, or less for small plants, intorepparttar 113484 hole aroundrepparttar 113485 plant before it is completely filled is usually necessary. A starter solution made by mixing 1/2 pound of a 4-12-4 or 5-10-5 commercial fertilizer in 4 gallons of water may be used instead of plain water. It is usually beneficial. Finally,repparttar 113486 freshly set plants should be shaded for a day or two with newspapers.

Plants differ greatly inrepparttar 113487 way they recover fromrepparttar 113488 loss of roots and from exposure to new conditions. Small plants of tomatoes, lettuce, beets, cabbage, and related vegetables are easy to transplant. They withstandrepparttar 113489 treatment better than peppers, eggplant, andrepparttar 113490 vine crops. When started indoors and moved torepparttar 113491 field,repparttar 113492 vine crops should be seeded directly in berry baskets or containers ofrepparttar 113493 same size that can be transferred torepparttar 113494 garden and removed without disturbingrepparttar 113495 root systems. Beans and sweet corn can be handled inrepparttar 113496 same manner, thereby often gaining a week or two in earliness.

Article by: Tracker Outdoors


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