Building Catapults Required Engineering Know How

Written by MCSW Webmaster

Continued from page 1

The great trebuchets created a different problem for those charged with building catapults. These much larger machines of war required a better understanding of physics and more, and heavier materials. Since they were known for their castle-wall crushing ability, building catapults of this design was often necessary on site.

Believed to have been created in 12 century France,repparttar trebuchet used a long wooden arm rested on a pivot point to act as a larger level. When building catapults of this style, a very large projectile was also needed. Earlier versions called for warriors to pull on ropes to hurlrepparttar 145483 stone or object.

Although it wasn’t easy to fill an order on site, much likerepparttar 145484 modern day Army Corp of Engineers, their early counterparts understood what was necessary to go about building catapults. They knew, too, success or failure of their military campaign might depend on their ability to build catapults with speed and accuracy. With a wealth of knowledge stored in their heads – rather than in calculators – they set about putting these machines together onsite, or inrepparttar 145485 case ofrepparttar 145486 more mobile models in advance.

For more medieval siege weapons information, including catapult history, visitrepparttar 145487 Medieval Siege Weapons Index page at

The MCSW Webmaster is responsible for adding new information to All About Medieval Castles - Medieval Siege Weapons, a site filled with over 100 pages of interesting information covering many aspects of medieval castles and medieval weapons.

Coffee History

Written by Hilda Maria Sigurdardottir

Continued from page 1

Early inrepparttar 17th century, Edward Lloyd's coffee house opens in England. The Dutch becamerepparttar 145482 first to commercially transport coffee. The first Parisian café opens in 1713 and King Louis XIV is presented with a lovely coffee tree. Sugar is first used as an addition to coffee in his court.

The America’s Have Coffee

Coffee plants were introduced inrepparttar 145483 Americas for development. By close torepparttar 145484 end ofrepparttar 145485 seventeen hundreds, 1,920 million plants are grown onrepparttar 145486 island.

Evidentlyrepparttar 145487 eighteen hundreds were spent trying to find better methods to make coffee.

The “Brew” inrepparttar 145488 20th Century

New methods to help brewing coffee start popping up everywhere. The first commercial espresso machine is developed in Italy. Melitta Bentz makes a filter using blotting paper. Dr. Ernest Lily manufacturesrepparttar 145489 first automatic espresso machine. The Nestle Company invents Nescafe instant coffee. Achilles Gaggia perfectsrepparttar 145490 espresso machine. Hills Bros. begins packing roasted coffee in vacuum tins eventually ending local roasting shops and coffee mills. A Japanese-American chemist named Satori Kato from Chicago inventsrepparttar 145491 first soluble “instant” coffee.

German coffee importer Ludwig Roselius turns some ruined coffee beans over to researchers, who perfectedrepparttar 145492 process of removing caffeine fromrepparttar 145493 beans without destroyingrepparttar 145494 flavor. He sells it underrepparttar 145495 name Sanka. Sanka is introduced inrepparttar 145496 United States in 1923.

George Constant Washington an English chemist living in Guatemala, is interested in a powdery condensation forming onrepparttar 145497 spout of his silver coffee flask. After checking into it, he createsrepparttar 145498 first mass-produced instant coffee which is his brand name called Red E Coffee.

Prohibition goes into effect in United States. Coffee sales suddenly increase. Brazil asked Nestle to help find a solution to their coffee surpluses sorepparttar 145499 Nestle Company comes up with freeze-dried coffee. Nestle also made Nescafe and introduced it to Switzerland.

Other Interesting Tidbits

Todayrepparttar 145500 US imports 70 percent ofrepparttar 145501 world’s coffee crop. During W.W.II, American soldiers were issued instant Maxwell House coffee in their ration kits.

In Italy, Achilles Gaggia perfects his espresso machine. The name Cappuccino comes fromrepparttar 145502 resemblance of its color torepparttar 145503 robes ofrepparttar 145504 monks ofrepparttar 145505 Capuchin order.

One week before Woodstock,repparttar 145506 Manson family murders coffee heiress Abigail Folger as she visits with her friend Sharon Tate inrepparttar 145507 home of filmmaker Roman Polanski.

Starbuck’s Hitsrepparttar 145508 Coffee World Starbucks opens its first store in Seattle's Pike Place public market in 1971. This creates madness over fresh-roasted whole bean coffee. Coffee finally becomesrepparttar 145509 world's most popular beverage. More than 450 billion cups are sold each year by 1995.

The Current Coffee Trends

Now inrepparttar 145510 21st century we have many different styles, grinds, and flavors of coffee. We have really come a long way even with our coffee making machines. There’s no sign of coffee consumption decreasing. Researchers are even finding many health benefits to drinking coffee. Drink and enjoy!

Hilda Maria is the mother of five great children. She understands the need for a great cup of coffee in a flash and enjoys using a coffee maker and fresh green coffee beans to get it.

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