Written by Robert Bruce Baird

Continued from page 1

Broecker and his colleagues acceptedrepparttar presence of these much lower dates and suggested thatrepparttar 142760 whole matter was complicated byrepparttar 142761 fact that there had been an estimated 200-year resurgence of glacial conditions, known asrepparttar 142762 Valders re-advance, aroundrepparttar 142763 mid-ninth millenium BC. They therefore acknowledged that their own findings might in fact relate torepparttar 142764 recession ofrepparttar 142765 ice fields after this time, bringingrepparttar 142766 dates of their suggested 'major fluctuation in climate' andrepparttar 142767 'sharp change in oceanic conditions' down to well below c. 9000 BC. (13)


Further evidence that dramatic changes accompaniedrepparttar 142768 transition from glacial to post-glacial ages came fromrepparttar 142769 work of Herbert E. Wright Jnr, ofrepparttar 142770 School of Earth Sciences atrepparttar 142771 University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, (14) and J Gordon Ogden III ofrepparttar 142772 Department of Botany and Bacteriology atrepparttar 142773 Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware. (15) Both examinedrepparttar 142774 pollen spectra range from sediment cores taken from various lake sites inrepparttar 142775 Great Lakes area and found they provided clear evidence of an abrupt shift in flora atrepparttar 142776 end of glaciation. The spruce forests that had thrived inrepparttar 142777 cold harsh climate for many thousands of years were supplanted swiftly, first by pine and then by mixed hardwood forests, such as birch and oak. Deciduous trees, as we know, only thrive in a warmer climate.

The significance of these findings isrepparttar 142778 acceleration at which this transition took place. In an article forrepparttar 142779 journal 'Quaternary Paleoecology' in 1967, Ogden pointed out that some pollen spectra samples showed a 50 per cent replacement from spruce to pine occurring in just 10 centimetres of sediment. (16) In one sample taken from a site named Glacial Lake Aitken in Minnesota,repparttar 142780 transition from 55 per cent to 18 per cent spruce pollen occurred in only 7.6 centimetres of sediment, re- presenting a deposition corresponding to just 170 years. (17) The problem here is that conventional geologists and paleoecologists consider thatrepparttar 142781 transition from glacial to post-glacial ages occurred over several 'thousand' years, not just a few hundred {The time it takes for one or two trees to live and die.} years.

These findings so baffled Ogden that he was led to comment: 'The only mechanism sufficient to produce a change ofrepparttar 142782 kind described here would therefore appear to be a rapid and dramatic change in temperature and/or precipitation approximately 10,000 years ago.’ (18)

What kind of climatic 'event' might have been responsible for this 'rapid and dramatic change in temperature’ {Could this relate torepparttar 142783 buttercups found frozen and undigested in Mammoth mouths ofrepparttar 142784 Arctic?} inrepparttar 142785 American Midwest, sometime around c. 8000 BC? Had it been a consequence ofrepparttar 142786 proposed cometary impact that devastatedrepparttar 142787 western hemisphere during this same epoch?

The knowledge that some 65 million years agorepparttar 142788 Cretaceous period had been abruptly brought to a close by just such an impact has softenedrepparttar 142789 most stubborn of minds concerning such a possibility. Broecker himself, in an article written for 'Scientific American' in 1983, now accepted that asteroid or comet impacts might be responsible forrepparttar 142790 instigation and termination of glacial ages. (19)

This is indeed what Emilio Spedicato has suggested asrepparttar 142791 mechanism behindrepparttar 142792 revolution in climate and ocean temperature experienced during this period…” (20)

We will return to implications related to this andrepparttar 142793 work of Mr. Collins throughout this encyclopedia as we develop real history from actual facts rather thanrepparttar 142794 Bible Narrative. It should be evident that these climate changes had significant impacts on society and created a loss of culture and technology in certain areas ofrepparttar 142795 world. There were probably people who took advantage of these spiritual and other perceptions that resulted as well.

Author of Diverse Druids guest 'expert' Columnist for The ES Press Magazine

The Charm of Making

Written by Robert Bruce Baird

Continued from page 1

The Indians who participate inrepparttar Gallup Festival includerepparttar 142223 Pueblos, as well as their more recent rivals,repparttar 142224 originally nomadic Navajos;repparttar 142225 latter's distant kinrepparttar 142226 Apaches andrepparttar 142227 Comanches; andrepparttar 142228 more northern Great Plains-dwelling Sioux. Even members ofrepparttar 142229 far-off eastern-forest and Northwest Coast tribes attend. It is an occasion on whichrepparttar 142230 various factions withinrepparttar 142231 Native American population agree to set aside their differences and remember their brotherhood. For decades Campbell had wanted to attendrepparttar 142232 event.

'It was an amazing thing,' Jean remembered. 'There was a parade and then all these dances, fromrepparttar 142233 different Indian tribes... (Jean was trying to write downrepparttar 142234 choreography ofrepparttar 142235 different dances). At nightrepparttar 142236 dancing ground, a huge open space onrepparttar 142237 edge of Gallup, {A small desert town when I would travel through it a few years ago.} was lit up by campfires ofrepparttar 142238 various groups of performers--tents all around--then more dances. It was really unforgettable.'

So impressive wasrepparttar 142239 experience that Joseph and Jean repeated it two years later, in 1952. This time they sharedrepparttar 142240 excursion with another couple who were friends from Woodstock, Jane and Wendell Jones. The itinerary includedrepparttar 142241 Zia Pueblo, and a closer probe into Navajo country that was familiar to Campbell from his work on Navajo mythology.

Towardrepparttar 142242 end of their visit,repparttar 142243 Indians ofrepparttar 142244 Zia Pueblo were going to perform some ceremonies; Wendell and Jane had gone their way, and Joseph steeredrepparttar 142245 car downrepparttar 142246 long, dusty unpaved road towardrepparttar 142247 isolated Pueblo. It was a very traditional affair, to be culminated by a rain dance. Jean remembered thatrepparttar 142248 men had a purplish paint on their skin {Refer to our section on purple in 'Science' please.} Various ceremonies were enacted, but in early afternoon when it was time forrepparttar 142249 rain dance, one ofrepparttar 142250 elders knowing that Joseph and Jean were due to return to New York that evening, took them aside. 'It's going to be raining soon,' he said, 'it's going to pour, and it could affect your trip. You'd better go now.' Joseph and Jean said their goodbye under gathering dark clouds that just seemed to materialize out ofrepparttar 142251 boundless western skies. They got into their car and began to drive eastward toward Santa Fe. And then it began to rain.

It was pouring when they finally reached Santa Fe and found a little rooming house. It rained all night, and after they started out inrepparttar 142252 morning, 'it rained in every place we drove through onrepparttar 142253 way back. We couldn't seem to get away from it. Finally we arrived in New York, and just gotten home, when it began to rain. By now we couldn't believe what was happening. 'Those guys are pretty powerful,' Joe said." (3 A Fire inrepparttar 142254 Mind)

Joseph Campbell was one ofrepparttar 142255 premiere anthropologists and he wrote stories that native people throughoutrepparttar 142256 world knew would reachrepparttar 142257 human race. It is unlikely that each ofrepparttar 142258 peoples who exposed him to such treats didn't knowrepparttar 142259 impact ofrepparttar 142260 books he wrote; andrepparttar 142261 continuing need to teachrepparttar 142262 white manrepparttar 142263 error of his ways would be a part of their purpose. He has many such stories and his credibility and honesty is renowned, but his thoughts on 'bliss' are sublime.

Be careful what you wish for - you might get it.

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