Amenhotep KingsWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
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Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) (1350-1334), The second son of great Amenhotep III, Akhenaten came to throne when his elder brother and heir to throne, Thuthmose, died while still a child. At this point young Akhenaten was still known by his original name - Amenhotep (IV), it was only when he ascended throne that he would change his name. Immediately he took up offices and teachings of a prince regent, including studying at centre of intellectual learning for Egypt - Heliopolis. was invested as king not in Amen temple at Karnak as custom dictated, but at Hermonthis, where his uncle Inen was High Priest of Re and immediately began building a roofless temple to Aten, disk of rising sun. He soon forbade worship of other gods, especially of state god Amen of Thebes. In 6th year he changed his name from Amenhotep ("Amen is satisfied") to Akhenaten ("beneficial to Aten") and left Thebes for a new capital at Akhetaten (El Amarna). Amenhotep IV's reign was a time of many changes, for not only did he decide to change his name to Akhenaten, he found a perfect site along banks of Nile where he could be build a new capital of Egypt - Akhetaten, Pharaoh found a plain within a semicircle of cliffs - here he set up an altar and made an offering to Aten in thanks for leading him to this chosen place. Later at foundation ceremony of city, Akhenaten expressed how city had been revealed to him alone by his father, Aten, as his chosen seat.
Living there with his queen Nefertiti, six daughters, and possibly several sons, he fostered new styles in art and literature. The confiscation of wealth of Amen temples wreaked havoc upon its priesthood. Akhenaten used these riches to strengthen royal control over army and his officialdom. His concentration on internal affairs brought about loss of some of Egyptian possessions in Canaan and Retenu (Syria) and of Egyptian naval dominance, when Aziru defected to Hittites with his fleet. His religious reforms didn't survive his reign and monotheism in its pure form was forgotten in Egypt, even though it found a new expression in trinity of Re, Ptah and Amen. The Aten temples were demolished, and Akhenaten came to be called "the Enemy."
Tutankhamen (r. 1361-1352 BC), son in law of Akhenaten, succeeded his brother Smenkhkare when he was only nine years old. His vizier Ay restored traditional polytheistic religion, abandoning monotheistic cult of Aten of Akhenaten, its religious centre at el Amarna and returning to capital Thebes. By reviving cult of state god Amen he strengthened position of Amen's priesthood. The pharaoh changed his name Tutankhaten, (living image of Aten), to Tutankhamen, (living image of Amen), During his reign, general Horemheb sought to 'pacify' Palestine and fought against Hittites in northern Syria allied to Assyrians.
Egyptian medical doctor, speciality in radiology, much interested in egyptology.
Ancient Egyptian animalsWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
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Anubis: This jackal-headed god looked after dead, and was in charge of important task of mummification. Anubis can appear as either a black canine with long sharp ears, or as a man with a canine head. The black colour of Anubis is not natural to jackals or to wild dogs of Egypt; it may refer to discoloration of a body after death and during mummification. The black colour also refers to rich dark soil of Egypt, from which new growth came every year; in similar manner, dead would come to new life after burial. Dogs, as animal companions, were present in Egypt from very beginning. Sometimes dogs were buried with their masters. It may have given Egyptians comfort to think of such an animal as guarding cemeteries, protecting dead. There are other minor animals that were held sacred by Egyptians so because they were beneficial others because they were considered evil. Examples of these animals are:- The mongoose was respected because of its skill and power of robbing nests and eating snakes. The snakes were thought to be evil. Because snake's poisonous bite, it killed many people. The crocodile was known for its silent attacks on people near Nile water. The hippopotamus was considered evil and very dangerous. They were killed to protect people. At night hippopotamus would trample fields. The locusts were considered evil because they would destroy and damage crops. Frogs and toads were sign of fertility. The number one hundred thousandths is a sign of a tadpole. Heket: Frog-headed goddess of childbirth. Frogs, who produce vast numbers of tadpoles, were popular as amulets to ensure fertility. Babi is a deity shown in Baboon form, and it's from his name that we get our word for these animals. Babi is ferocious, even blood-thirsty, unlike usually calm and reasonable Thoth who also appears as a baboon. Other animals represented by a god/goddess or sacred were ibises, dogs, rams, baboons, shrews, fishes, gazelles, and lions. Farm Animals Animals were one of most important things about farming. Animals helped ancient Egyptians with jobs like trampling in seeds, pulling plow, eating unwanted grain or wheat and providing them with food and drink. But having these animals may have caused misfortune like if a donkey nibbled on someone else's crops farmer could threaten to take its owner to court. Also if animals were sick Egyptians had to do all work that they did. If animals were not marked they may have been stolen. Some of farm animals were goats, pigs, ducks, cows, and geese.
Egyptian radiologist, interested in egyptology.