All Americans Labeled Equally Homosexual by Government

Written by Stan Sapsick

Continued from page 1

At this point SAMHSA changed its story and said that it was SAMHSA policy to userepparttar words, "sexual orientation" when referring torepparttar 125870 gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender population. Apparently, it has failed officials at SAMHSA that all people have a sexual orientation whether that is a hetero, homo or bisexual orientation.

Perhaps realizing just how much trouble they could be in with groups likerepparttar 125871 ACLU for refusing to use, or let be used,repparttar 125872 terms gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgenderrepparttar 125873 story changed one more time. In an article appearing in Join Together Onlinerepparttar 125874 terminology "sexual orientation" was attributed to a project manager byrepparttar 125875 name of Brenda Bruun.

One thing that has not changed, isrepparttar 125876 refusal by SAMHSA to allowrepparttar 125877 workshop presenters to changerepparttar 125878 title back to include gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender. For nowrepparttar 125879 workshop will be a workshop on vulnerable populations. And, at least inrepparttar 125880 eyes of SAMHSA, all Americans will be equally gay.

Stan Sapsick is a writer with a passion for truth.

History of the Media

Written by David Pakman

Continued from page 1

It was becoming financially difficult for just one advertiser to support an entire show.

Around this same time camerepparttar inception of ratings to measure a show's popularity. Ratings, quite simply, measurerepparttar 125869 number of people watching a show. To understand why ratings are so important, it's crucial to understand howrepparttar 125870 television industry works, through three questions, and their respective answers:


Who owns television? [The networks] 2.

What is sold on television? [Viewer's time, not television shows] 3.

Who arerepparttar 125871 customers of television? [Advertisers, not viewers]

This might be a counterintuitive concept for some. The networks, which own television, areHistory ofrepparttar 125872 Media - Old Televisionrepparttar 125873 buyers of shows, notrepparttar 125874 sellers. Onrepparttar 125875 other hand, they sell our eyeballs, so to speak, to advertisers. Networks wantrepparttar 125876 maximum possible profit from buying and selling time, both viewers' time, and advertisers' time.

The primary measure of television ratings, which determinerepparttar 125877 price of that time being bought and sold, is AC Nielsen, an independent company which provides information as to who watches what on television. Currently, about 4,000 households are used to representrepparttar 125878 national viewing of television. Inrepparttar 125879 1980's, only 1,200 households were used. Some households have an electronic device installed on their television which tracks what they watch, while others keep a diary of viewing habits.

There are two measures for determining a show's audience. One isrepparttar 125880 rating, andrepparttar 125881 other isrepparttar 125882 share.


Rating: Percentage of total homes with televisions tuned into a particular show. *

Share: Percentage of those watching television at a particular time who are tuned into a particular show.

The share is always greater thanrepparttar 125883 rating. Ratings are more important for advertisers, and share is more important torepparttar 125884 networks.



Total households with televisions: 150 million *

Total households watching television at 8pm on Monday nights: 90 million *

Total households watching American Idol at 8pm on Monday nights: 45 million *

Therefore: Rating: 30, Share: 50

It's important to note how many factors can skewrepparttar 125885 results. Shows cost producers much more thanrepparttar 125886 networks typically pay them for those shows. The way for producers to make money is by gettingrepparttar 125887 networks to renewrepparttar 125888 show, in order to have a shot at making money from syndication on other channels, also knows as reruns. That isrepparttar 125889 case when individual stations (say for example,repparttar 125890 Miami affiliate of ABC wants to carry Seinfeld), buyrepparttar 125891 rights to a show fromrepparttar 125892 producers of that show. Shows that last only one season, forrepparttar 125893 most part, lose millions of dollars. One ofrepparttar 125894 most important factors in whether shows will be renewed or not is their rating.

This brings us to how ratings can be skewed. For example, if a show has a 20 share, and it needs a 25 share to be renewed for another season, what mightrepparttar 125895 producers do? In principle, they need to convince another 5% ofrepparttar 125896 people watching television when their show is on to watch their show; this is no simple task, as that involves convincing millions of people. However, sincerepparttar 125897 ratings are based on those 4,000 Nielsen households, that means that they could convince just 200 Nielsen households to watch their show, which would increaserepparttar 125898 share from 20 to 25. This is why Nielsen households must be kept totally secret fromrepparttar 125899 networks. Whenrepparttar 125900 Nielsen households have leaked torepparttar 125901 networks, one way which they got people to watch their show was by offering viewers a small sum of money for filling out a survey about a commercial which they were told would play only during a particular show. Since they had to watch that channel while their show was on, this would boostrepparttar 125902 share.

Once ratings are determined, advertising prices are set by two factors:

* The size ofrepparttar 125903 audience. * The demographics (income, age, gender, occupation, etc) ofrepparttar 125904 audience.

In short,repparttar 125905 job of television programs is to collect our time as a product, which they then sell to advertisers. Programs have to supportrepparttar 125906 advertising, delivering viewers inrepparttar 125907 best possible state of mind for buying whenrepparttar 125908 time forrepparttar 125909 commercials comes, which brings us torepparttar 125910 Golden Age of Television.

The 1950's are consideredrepparttar 125911 "Golden Age of Television." During this time, something calledrepparttar 125912 "Anthology Series," where different actors each week took part in a show gained History ofrepparttar 125913 Media - I Love Lucypopularity acrossrepparttar 125914 board...that is, with everyone except for advertisers. The anthology series format was not right for advertisers, as it covered topics which involved psychological confrontations which did not leaverepparttar 125915 viewers inrepparttar 125916 proper state of mind for buyingrepparttar 125917 products shown to them between program segments. The subject matter ofrepparttar 125918 anthology series was ofrepparttar 125919 type that underminedrepparttar 125920 ads, almost making them seem fraudulent.

This brought uprepparttar 125921 question of what to network executives actually want shows to do? The answer is not to watch a program that makes them feel good, makes them laugh, or excites them, but rather to watchrepparttar 125922 television for a set amount of time. With so many new shows being proposed, standards began to be intentionally, or unintentionally, laid out for what shows could and couldn't do. Risks could only be taken atrepparttar 125923 beginning and/or end of shows. Laugh tracks were conceived to tellrepparttar 125924 audience when to laugh. Programs began being tested with audiences prior to being put on television and/or radio. Show writers now had to write shows that would test well.

Naturally, this caused many ofrepparttar 125925 same elements and themes to appear in all shows. This wasrepparttar 125926 beginning of recombinant television culture, whererepparttar 125927 same elements are endlessly repeated, recombined, and mixed.

This same culture is what perpetuatedrepparttar 125928 idea that people watch television, not specific shows. While people certainly choose to watch certain shows instead of others, people less commonly choose to watch television instead of other things. People watch television. Regardless of what was on, television viewing rates were extremely stable.

David Pakman is a student at the University of Massachusetts - Amherst, and editor/administrator of politics and media website

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