ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CLOTHESWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
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The wealthy people both men and women wore long see-through robes that were pleated. Noblemen would sometimes wear a long robe over his kilt, while women wore long pleated dresses with a shawl. Some kings and queens wore decorative ceremonial clothing with feathers. Wealthy people wore sandals made of leather that had straps across instep and between first and second toes. Most people went barefoot, but wore sandals on special occasions. The king wore very elaborately decorated sandals, and sometimes decorative gloves on his hands. The sandals were sometimes made of palm fiber or braided papyrus together with leather sandals.
Clothing styles were chosen for comfort in hot, dry climate of Egypt, while in winter, wraps and cloaks were worn. . Women did not dress without washing (rich people had a tiled area for washing). After washing, they rubbed themselves with scented oil then they placed a large rectangle of linen over their heads, gathered loose corners up and tied them in a knot below chest. The usual toilet articles were tweezers, razor and comb. Priests washed several times a day and they had to remove all body hair to be pure enough to approach god. They could not wear leather sandals or wool clothing (considered unclean). They wore a leopard robe when serving god Amun.
The Egyptians cared about their appearance a great deal. The women spent a lot of time bathing, rubbing oils and perfumes into their skin, and using their many cosmetic implements to apply make-up and style their wigs. Using a highly-polished bronze hand mirror, a woman would apply khol, a black dye kept in a jar or pot, to line her eyes and eyebrows, using an "brush" or "pencil" made of a reed. Men wore this eye make-up as well, which was not only a fashion but also protected against eye infections which were common in Egypt. They would use a dye called henna to redden their nails and lips. Wigs were worn by men and women. Wigs were made from human hair or wool. They wore curled wigs for special occasions.
Egyptians adorned themselves with as much jewelry as they could afford. Wealthy people wore broad collars made of gold and precious stones liked together, which fastened at back of neck. Pairs of bracelets were worn around wrist or high on arm, above elbow. Rings and anklets were also worn. Women wore large round earrings and put bands around their heads or held their hair in place with ivory and metal hair pins. Ordinary people wore necklaces made of brightly colored pottery beads.
Egyptian radiologist,interested in egyptology.
Amenhotep KingsWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
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Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) (1350-1334), The second son of great Amenhotep III, Akhenaten came to throne when his elder brother and heir to throne, Thuthmose, died while still a child. At this point young Akhenaten was still known by his original name - Amenhotep (IV), it was only when he ascended throne that he would change his name. Immediately he took up offices and teachings of a prince regent, including studying at centre of intellectual learning for Egypt - Heliopolis. was invested as king not in Amen temple at Karnak as custom dictated, but at Hermonthis, where his uncle Inen was High Priest of Re and immediately began building a roofless temple to Aten, disk of rising sun. He soon forbade worship of other gods, especially of state god Amen of Thebes. In 6th year he changed his name from Amenhotep ("Amen is satisfied") to Akhenaten ("beneficial to Aten") and left Thebes for a new capital at Akhetaten (El Amarna). Amenhotep IV's reign was a time of many changes, for not only did he decide to change his name to Akhenaten, he found a perfect site along banks of Nile where he could be build a new capital of Egypt - Akhetaten, Pharaoh found a plain within a semicircle of cliffs - here he set up an altar and made an offering to Aten in thanks for leading him to this chosen place. Later at foundation ceremony of city, Akhenaten expressed how city had been revealed to him alone by his father, Aten, as his chosen seat.
Living there with his queen Nefertiti, six daughters, and possibly several sons, he fostered new styles in art and literature. The confiscation of wealth of Amen temples wreaked havoc upon its priesthood. Akhenaten used these riches to strengthen royal control over army and his officialdom. His concentration on internal affairs brought about loss of some of Egyptian possessions in Canaan and Retenu (Syria) and of Egyptian naval dominance, when Aziru defected to Hittites with his fleet. His religious reforms didn't survive his reign and monotheism in its pure form was forgotten in Egypt, even though it found a new expression in trinity of Re, Ptah and Amen. The Aten temples were demolished, and Akhenaten came to be called "the Enemy."
Tutankhamen (r. 1361-1352 BC), son in law of Akhenaten, succeeded his brother Smenkhkare when he was only nine years old. His vizier Ay restored traditional polytheistic religion, abandoning monotheistic cult of Aten of Akhenaten, its religious centre at el Amarna and returning to capital Thebes. By reviving cult of state god Amen he strengthened position of Amen's priesthood. The pharaoh changed his name Tutankhaten, (living image of Aten), to Tutankhamen, (living image of Amen), During his reign, general Horemheb sought to 'pacify' Palestine and fought against Hittites in northern Syria allied to Assyrians.
Egyptian medical doctor, speciality in radiology, much interested in egyptology.