ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CITIESWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
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Temple of Amon Ra In Luxor, all that remains of its glorious past is temple that ancient Egyptians built to glory of Amon ra king of gods, and which they called "Southern harem of Amon". Brought back to light in 1883 by Gaston Maspéro, temple is 260 metres long and its construction was basically commissioned by two Pharaohs, Amon-Ofis III who started it in XIV century B.C. and Ramses II who completed it adding porticoed courtyard with its axis moved eastwards, and no longer north-south as in case of rest of temples. The architect was probably amenophis, son of Hotep. The temple of Luxor was joined to that of karnak by a long stone-paved dromos, a drome and a processional avenue, flanked by sphinxes with rams heads that XXX Dynasty replaced with sphynexes with human heads. The avenue ended at entrance to temple of Luxor, marked by large pylon erected by Ramses II, which features a 65-metre front decorated with bas-reliefs illustrating scenes of military campaigns of Pharaoh against Hittites. In ancient time, pylon was preceded by two obelisks, two seated colossi and two standing colossi. Today, only left 25-metre high obelisk is still standing: other was taken to Paris in 1833 and placed by engineer Lebas in Place de la Concorde on 25th October 1836. The two colossi in granite represent Pharaoh seated on his throne, fifteen and a half metres in height on a base of about one metre. Of other four statues in pink granite leaning against pylon, one was to represent Queen Nefertari and another decrepit one to right, his daughter Merit-Amon. Having passed through triumphal entrance, one enters court of Ramses II, with its double row of columns with closed papyrus capital and statues of Osiris in inter columns. To north-west of courtyard one can admire temple-deposit of sacred boats built by Thot-Mosis III and dedicated to triad Amon, Mut and Khonsu. Then follows a colonnade of two rows of bell-shaped columns 52 meters long that take us to second sourtyard, or courtyard of Amon-Ofis II, surrounded on three sides by two rows of columns with closed papyruses, a real, highly evocative forest. From here, across a transversal hypostyle hall, one enters last sanctuary, most intimate and sacred part, which gave temple its name of "Adytum of south" theatre.
Egyptian radiologist, interested in egyptology.
Tuhotmosis PharaohsWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
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He also made campaigns into Nubia where he built temples at Amada and Semna and restored Senusret III's old canal in his 50th year of rule so that his armies could easily pass on their return to Egypt. Tuthmosis III built his own temple near Hatshepsut's on a ledge between her temple and that of Mentuhotep. Close by, Tuthmosis built a rock cut sanctuary to goddess Hathor. This monument was accidentally discovered by a Swiss team when a rock fall exposed its opening. Apparently, shrine was in use up to Ramesside period, when it was destroyed by an earthquake. But of many monuments associated with Tuthmosis III, none faired better then temple of Karnak. Wall reliefs near sanctuary record many gifts of gold jewelry, furniture, rich oils and other gifts offered to temple,. mostly from spoils of war, by Tuthmosis III. He was responsible for Sixth and Seventh Pylons at Karnak, as well as considerable reconstruction within central areas of temple. He erected two obelisks at temple, one of which survives at Hippodrom at Istanbul. There is also a great, black granite Victory Stele embellishing his military victories. He also built a new and very unique temple at Karnak that is today referred to as his Festival Hall. The columns are believed to represent poles of king's campaign tent. In rear is a small room with representations of animals and plants bought back from Syria during 25th year of his reign. For obvious reasons, this room is referred to as Botanical Garden. Tuthmosis III, we believe ruled Egypt from 1504 BC until his death in 1450 BC. He was buried in Valley of kings. The tomb was halfway up a cliff face, and after his burial, masons destroyed stone stairway leading up to it and concealed tomb's entrance. However, it would seem that no matter what initiatives pharaohs took to protect their tombs, robbers were sure to find them. Indeed, in 1898 when his tomb was discovered by Victor Loret, all he found was carved sarcophagus and some remains of smashed furniture and wooden statues. Tuthmosis III, mummy likewise was not in tomb, for it had been found in 1881 in great royal cache at Deir el-Bahari. However, tomb is covered with black and red painted hieratic renditions of netherworld texts. The Pharaoh Tuthmosis IV, who ruled during Egypt famous 18th Dynasty, is probably most famous for his "Dream Stele, that can still today be found between paws of great Sphinx at Giza. Dreams were important in ancient Egypt and were considered to be divine predictions of future. In Tuthmosis IV's "Dream Stele", he tells us that, while out on a hunting trip, he fell asleep in shadow of Sphinx (or apparently, shadow of Sphinx's head, for monument was apparently buried in sand at time). In young prince's sleep, Re-Harakhte, sun god embodied in Sphinx, came to him in a dream and promised that if he would clear away sand that engulfed monument, Tuthmosis would become king of Egypt.
Egyptian medical doctor, speciality in radiology,much interested in egyptology.